IELTS KELİMELERİ

IELTS KELİMELERİ



When animals including man eat, it is normal for the mouth to water. This is called salivation. It is a natural reflex and was studied by the Russian physiologist Pavlov whose famous experiments on the salivation of dogs are important in the history of modern psychology. Though salivation is natural, Pavlov noticed that a dog would salivate not just when it was eating, but also when it saw the man who usually fed it. In Pavlov's early experiments he simply showed the dog some bread, which he then allowed to eat. After a while the sight of the experimenter was enough to make the dog to salivate. We cannot call this a natural reflex because a dog does not normally salivate at the sight of man. It is what psychologists call a 'conditioned response'. The dog has been taught, or "conditioned", to salivate when he sees the man. Having decided to study this, Pavlov developed scientific methods for doing so. In order to make sure the experimenter did not disturb the dog, the dog and experimenter were put in separate rooms. Pavlov even put the dog in a kind of frame to make it stand still. He invented a system of tubes for giving the dog food and watched what happened from outside the room. He found that he could condition the dog to salivate at almost any event —when a bell rang or a light flashed, for example—as long as this event was followed by food. The American psychologist Skinner developed this idea of conditioning. He found he could condition animals to do quite complicated things by using a technique he called "shaping". He could teach pigeons, for example, to play table tennis. At first he gave them a reward for knocking the ball a short distance in the right direction. Slowly he increased the distance they must knock the ball before getting the reward, and eventually they received it only when they knocked the ball past their "opponent".      Mark the best choice       1.   What does this (Line 1) refer to?





When animals including man eat, it is normal for the mouth to water. This is called salivation. It is a natural reflex and was studied by the Russian physiologist Pavlov whose famous experiments on the salivation of dogs are important in the history of modern psychology. Though salivation is natural, Pavlov noticed that a dog would salivate not just when it was eating, but also when it saw the man who usually fed it. In Pavlov's early experiments he simply showed the dog some bread, which he then allowed to eat. After a while the sight of the experimenter was enough to make the dog to salivate. We cannot call this a natural reflex because a dog does not normally salivate at the sight of man. It is what psychologists call a 'conditioned response'. The dog has been taught, or "conditioned", to salivate when he sees the man. Having decided to study this, Pavlov developed scientific methods for doing so. In order to make sure the experimenter did not disturb the dog, the dog and experimenter were put in separate rooms. Pavlov even put the dog in a kind of frame to make it stand still. He invented a system of tubes for giving the dog food and watched what happened from outside the room. He found that he could condition the dog to salivate at almost any event —when a bell rang or a light flashed, for example—as long as this event was followed by food. The American psychologist Skinner developed this idea of conditioning. He found he could condition animals to do quite complicated things by using a technique he called "shaping". He could teach pigeons, for example, to play table tennis. At first he gave them a reward for knocking the ball a short distance in the right direction. Slowly he increased the distance they must knock the ball before getting the reward, and eventually they received it only when they knocked the ball past their "opponent".      Mark the best choice     2.   Russian physiologist Pavlov thought that __________.





When animals including man eat, it is normal for the mouth to water. This is called salivation. It is a natural reflex and was studied by the Russian physiologist Pavlov whose famous experiments on the salivation of dogs are important in the history of modern psychology. Though salivation is natural, Pavlov noticed that a dog would salivate not just when it was eating, but also when it saw the man who usually fed it. In Pavlov's early experiments he simply showed the dog some bread, which he then allowed to eat. After a while the sight of the experimenter was enough to make the dog to salivate. We cannot call this a natural reflex because a dog does not normally salivate at the sight of man. It is what psychologists call a 'conditioned response'. The dog has been taught, or "conditioned", to salivate when he sees the man. Having decided to study this, Pavlov developed scientific methods for doing so. In order to make sure the experimenter did not disturb the dog, the dog and experimenter were put in separate rooms. Pavlov even put the dog in a kind of frame to make it stand still. He invented a system of tubes for giving the dog food and watched what happened from outside the room. He found that he could condition the dog to salivate at almost any event —when a bell rang or a light flashed, for example—as long as this event was followed by food. The American psychologist Skinner developed this idea of conditioning. He found he could condition animals to do quite complicated things by using a technique he called "shaping". He could teach pigeons, for example, to play table tennis. At first he gave them a reward for knocking the ball a short distance in the right direction. Slowly he increased the distance they must knock the ball before getting the reward, and eventually they received it only when they knocked the ball past their "opponent".      Mark the best choice   3. Which of the following is NOT true?  





When animals including man eat, it is normal for the mouth to water. This is called salivation. It is a natural reflex and was studied by the Russian physiologist Pavlov whose famous experiments on the salivation of dogs are important in the history of modern psychology. Though salivation is natural, Pavlov noticed that a dog would salivate not just when it was eating, but also when it saw the man who usually fed it. In Pavlov's early experiments he simply showed the dog some bread, which he then allowed to eat. After a while the sight of the experimenter was enough to make the dog to salivate. We cannot call this a natural reflex because a dog does not normally salivate at the sight of man. It is what psychologists call a 'conditioned response'. The dog has been taught, or "conditioned", to salivate when he sees the man. Having decided to study this, Pavlov developed scientific methods for doing so. In order to make sure the experimenter did not disturb the dog, the dog and experimenter were put in separate rooms. Pavlov even put the dog in a kind of frame to make it stand still. He invented a system of tubes for giving the dog food and watched what happened from outside the room. He found that he could condition the dog to salivate at almost any event —when a bell rang or a light flashed, for example—as long as this event was followed by food. The American psychologist Skinner developed this idea of conditioning. He found he could condition animals to do quite complicated things by using a technique he called "shaping". He could teach pigeons, for example, to play table tennis. At first he gave them a reward for knocking the ball a short distance in the right direction. Slowly he increased the distance they must knock the ball before getting the reward, and eventually they received it only when they knocked the ball past their "opponent".      Mark the best choice     4. The dog in Pavlov's experiment was put in a frame in a different room __________.        





When animals including man eat, it is normal for the mouth to water. This is called salivation. It is a natural reflex and was studied by the Russian physiologist Pavlov whose famous experiments on the salivation of dogs are important in the history of modern psychology. Though salivation is natural, Pavlov noticed that a dog would salivate not just when it was eating, but also when it saw the man who usually fed it. In Pavlov's early experiments he simply showed the dog some bread, which he then allowed to eat. After a while the sight of the experimenter was enough to make the dog to salivate. We cannot call this a natural reflex because a dog does not normally salivate at the sight of man. It is what psychologists call a 'conditioned response'. The dog has been taught, or "conditioned", to salivate when he sees the man. Having decided to study this, Pavlov developed scientific methods for doing so. In order to make sure the experimenter did not disturb the dog, the dog and experimenter were put in separate rooms. Pavlov even put the dog in a kind of frame to make it stand still. He invented a system of tubes for giving the dog food and watched what happened from outside the room. He found that he could condition the dog to salivate at almost any event —when a bell rang or a light flashed, for example—as long as this event was followed by food. The American psychologist Skinner developed this idea of conditioning. He found he could condition animals to do quite complicated things by using a technique he called "shaping". He could teach pigeons, for example, to play table tennis. At first he gave them a reward for knocking the ball a short distance in the right direction. Slowly he increased the distance they must knock the ball before getting the reward, and eventually they received it only when they knocked the ball past their "opponent".      Mark the best choice       5. Pavlov discovered that __________.







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