İNGİLİZCE ÖRNEKLER

İNGİLİZCE ÖRNEKLER



Physical and mental coercion, brain surgery, brainwashing, drug use, and psychotherapy are often considered methods of behavior modification because they try to, and frequently do, change behavior. None of them, however, is behavior modification as the term is. used in present-day psychology. (5) The foundation for behavior modification was laid at the beginning of the 20th century in the experimental laboratory of the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. A dog was being trained to salivate when a circle was projected on a screen and not to salivate when an ellipse was shown. The shape of the ellipse was gradually modified to resemble the circle. When only a slight difference between the circle and the ellipse could be perceived, the dog became agitated and no longer displayed the conditioned response it had acquired. This type of disturbance was called an "experimentally induced neurosis." (11) A second landmark event for behavior modification took place when Pavlov's conditioning principles were extended to humans. In 1920 the American psychologists John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner reported an experimental study in which an 11-month-old baby who had previously played with a white laboratory rat was conditioned to be fearful of the rat by associating a loud noise with the animal, a process known as pairing. The psychologist Mary Cover Jones later performed experiments designed to reduce already established fears in children. She found two methods particularly effective: (1) associating a feared object with a different stimulus capable of arousing a positive reaction, and (2) placing the child who feared a certain object with other children who did not.   Mark the best choice     1. What is a "landmark event" (Line 12)?  





Physical and mental coercion, brain surgery, brainwashing, drug use, and psychotherapy are often considered methods of behavior modification because they try to, and frequently do, change behavior. None of them, however, is behavior modification as the term is. used in present-day psychology. (5) The foundation for behavior modification was laid at the beginning of the 20th century in the experimental laboratory of the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. A dog was being trained to salivate when a circle was projected on a screen and not to salivate when an ellipse was shown. The shape of the ellipse was gradually modified to resemble the circle. When only a slight difference between the circle and the ellipse could be perceived, the dog became agitated and no longer displayed the conditioned response it had acquired. This type of disturbance was called an "experimentally induced neurosis." (11) A second landmark event for behavior modification took place when Pavlov's conditioning principles were extended to humans. In 1920 the American psychologists John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner reported an experimental study in which an 11-month-old baby who had previously played with a white laboratory rat was conditioned to be fearful of the rat by associating a loud noise with the animal, a process known as pairing. The psychologist Mary Cover Jones later performed experiments designed to reduce already established fears in children. She found two methods particularly effective: (1) associating a feared object with a different stimulus capable of arousing a positive reaction, and (2) placing the child who feared a certain object with other children who did not.   Mark the best choice        2. When did the white rat become an object fear for the 11-month-old baby?  





Physical and mental coercion, brain surgery, brainwashing, drug use, and psychotherapy are often considered methods of behavior modification because they try to, and frequently do, change behavior. None of them, however, is behavior modification as the term is. used in present-day psychology. (5) The foundation for behavior modification was laid at the beginning of the 20th century in the experimental laboratory of the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. A dog was being trained to salivate when a circle was projected on a screen and not to salivate when an ellipse was shown. The shape of the ellipse was gradually modified to resemble the circle. When only a slight difference between the circle and the ellipse could be perceived, the dog became agitated and no longer displayed the conditioned response it had acquired. This type of disturbance was called an "experimentally induced neurosis." (11) A second landmark event for behavior modification took place when Pavlov's conditioning principles were extended to humans. In 1920 the American psychologists John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner reported an experimental study in which an 11-month-old baby who had previously played with a white laboratory rat was conditioned to be fearful of the rat by associating a loud noise with the animal, a process known as pairing. The psychologist Mary Cover Jones later performed experiments designed to reduce already established fears in children. She found two methods particularly effective: (1) associating a feared object with a different stimulus capable of arousing a positive reaction, and (2) placing the child who feared a certain object with other children who did not.   Mark the best choice              3. What did the psychologist Mary Cover Jones try to do?





Physical and mental coercion, brain surgery, brainwashing, drug use, and psychotherapy are often considered methods of behavior modification because they try to, and frequently do, change behavior. None of them, however, is behavior modification as the term is. used in present-day psychology. (5) The foundation for behavior modification was laid at the beginning of the 20th century in the experimental laboratory of the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. A dog was being trained to salivate when a circle was projected on a screen and not to salivate when an ellipse was shown. The shape of the ellipse was gradually modified to resemble the circle. When only a slight difference between the circle and the ellipse could be perceived, the dog became agitated and no longer displayed the conditioned response it had acquired. This type of disturbance was called an "experimentally induced neurosis." (11) A second landmark event for behavior modification took place when Pavlov's conditioning principles were extended to humans. In 1920 the American psychologists John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner reported an experimental study in which an 11-month-old baby who had previously played with a white laboratory rat was conditioned to be fearful of the rat by associating a loud noise with the animal, a process known as pairing. The psychologist Mary Cover Jones later performed experiments designed to reduce already established fears in children. She found two methods particularly effective: (1) associating a feared object with a different stimulus capable of arousing a positive reaction, and (2) placing the child who feared a certain object with other children who did not.   Mark the best choice                4. What good effect did the experiments with dogs and later with human beings have?





Physical and mental coercion, brain surgery, brainwashing, drug use, and psychotherapy are often considered methods of behavior modification because they try to, and frequently do, change behavior. None of them, however, is behavior modification as the term is. used in present-day psychology. (5) The foundation for behavior modification was laid at the beginning of the 20th century in the experimental laboratory of the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. A dog was being trained to salivate when a circle was projected on a screen and not to salivate when an ellipse was shown. The shape of the ellipse was gradually modified to resemble the circle. When only a slight difference between the circle and the ellipse could be perceived, the dog became agitated and no longer displayed the conditioned response it had acquired. This type of disturbance was called an "experimentally induced neurosis." (11) A second landmark event for behavior modification took place when Pavlov's conditioning principles were extended to humans. In 1920 the American psychologists John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner reported an experimental study in which an 11-month-old baby who had previously played with a white laboratory rat was conditioned to be fearful of the rat by associating a loud noise with the animal, a process known as pairing. The psychologist Mary Cover Jones later performed experiments designed to reduce already established fears in children. She found two methods particularly effective: (1) associating a feared object with a different stimulus capable of arousing a positive reaction, and (2) placing the child who feared a certain object with other children who did not.   Mark the best choice                5. Which of the following is wrong?







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