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  • Unit 1 - New Friends

    Bu üniteye, tanışma cümlelerini anlatarak başlıyoruz.

    “hello” “merhaba” demektir. Hello yerine kısaca “hi” da diyebiliriz.

    İngilizce öğrenirken atacağımız ilk adım, tanışma diyaloglarını öğrenmek olacak.

    Birisine ismini sormak için “What is your name?” deriz. “senin adın ne?” demektir.

    Kendimizi tanıtmak için

    “My name is” der, sonra ismimizi söyleriz.

    veya

    “I am” der, sonra ismimizi söyleriz.

    Birisi bize ismini söyleyince de “Nice to meet you” deriz. Yani “seninle tanıştığıma memnun oldum” demektir. Biri bize “Nice to meet you” deyince, biz de ona “Nice to meet you too” deriz. Sona eklenen “too” “ben de” anlamına gelir.

    “Nice to meet you too” “ben de seninle tanıştığıma memnun oldum.”

    Ayrılırken “Goodbye” yani “Güle Güle” deriz.

    -What is your name?

    -My name is Ceren.

    -Nice to meet you.

    -Nice to meet you too.

    -Goodbye.

    Bir arkadaşımızı başkasına tanıtırken ise “this is” diyip, sonra arkadaşımızın ismini söyleriz.

    -This is Mete

    -Nice to meet you Mete.

    “How are you?” “nasılsın?” demektir.

    “How are you?” sorusuna “I am fine, thanks?” diye cevap veririlir. Veya kısaca “I’m fine” da denebilir.

    “I am” ile “I’m” aynıdır, sadece kısaltma yapılmıştır. Bu tür kısaltmalar ile sık sık karşılaşacağız.

    “Siz nasılsınız?” diye sormak için, “I am fine, thanks” dedikten sonra “and you?” deriz.

    -How are you Ahmet?

    -I am fine, thanks, and you?

    -I am fine too.

    Birine, onun arkadaşının ismini sormak için

    ismini öğrenmek istediğimiz kişi erkekse “What is his name?”

    ismini öğrenmek istediğimiz kişi kız ise “what is her name?” diye sorarız.

    -What is her name?

    -Her name is Betty.

    Birine arkadaşımızın ismini söylemek için de

    arkadaşımız erkekse “his name is” diyip, sonra ismini söyleriz,

    kız ise “her name is” diyip, sonra ismini söyleriz.

    good morning günaydın

    good afternoon tünaydın

    good evening iyi akşamlar

    good night iyi geceler

    Unit 2 - My Classroom

    “This” “bu” demektir.

    “That” “şu” veya “o” demektir. İngilizce’de şu veya o arasında fark yoktur.

    This is a book.

    That is a ruler.

    “Bu nedir?” demek için “What is this?”

    “Şu nedir?” demek için “What is that?” diye sorarız.

    Bu sorulara cevap vermek için “it is” diye başlarız. Sonra nesnenin ismini söyleriz.

    -What is this?

    -It is a desk.

    -What is that?

    -It is a pen

    “Is this” veya “Is that”diye başlayan sorulara, “yes-no questions” denir. Bu sorular Türkçe’deki “mi” sorusuna benzer. Cevap verirken evet veya hayır deyip, sonra nesnenin ne olduğunu söylemeliyiz.

    -Is this a notebook?

    -Yes, it is a nootebook.

    Veya kısaca

    -Yes, it is.

    -Is that a pencil sharpener?

    -Yes it is a pencil sharpener.

    -Is that a table?

    -No, it is a chair.

    “No” dedikten sonra “it isn’t” dersek, “değildir” anlamına gelir.

    -Is that a board?

    -No, it isn’t. It is a dustbin.

    -What is this, Zuzu?

    -It is a ruler.

    -Is this a notebook Ahmet?

    -No it isn’t. It is a book.

    Şimdiye kadar bahsettiğimiz şeyler hep tekti. Şimdi çokluklardan bahsetmeyi öğrenelim.

    “These” “bunlar” demektir.

    “Those” “şunlar” veya “onlar” demektir. İngilizce’de “şunlar” veya “onlar” arasında fark yoktur.

    Dikkat! “These” veya “those” kullanırsak “is” yerine “are” demeliyiz.

    -What are these?

    -They are chairs.

    -What are those?

    -They are pencils.

    -Are these pens?

    -No, they aren’t. They are pencils.

    “or” “ya da” manasına gelir.

    -Are these notebooks or books?

    -They are books.

    -Are those tables or desks?

    -They are tables.

    Unit 3 - My Family

    Bu ünitede isimlerin sayılarını ingilizce olarak söylemeyi öğreneceğiz

    1
    one
    6
    six
    2
    two
    7
    seven
    3
    three
    8
    eight
    4
    four
    9
    nine
    5
    five
    10
    ten

     

    Önce sayıyı, sonra ismi söylemeliyiz. Eğer söylediğimiz isim, birden fazla sayıdaysa ismi çoğul yapmalıyız. Türkçe’deki “-ler, -lar” gibi, İngilizce’de de ismin sonuna “-s” eki getirilir.

    One cake

    Four books

    three notebooks

    seven cats

    ten chairs

    “What is this?” sorusunun, nesneler için kullanılan bir soru olduğunu öğrenmiştik. Şimdi de insanları sormayı öğreneceğiz. Yani “bu ne?” yerine “bu kim?” diye sormayı öğreneceğiz.

    -This is my picture.

    -Who is this?

    -This is my father.

    -Who is that?

    -That is my brother.

    “have got” “var” manasına gelir.

    İsmi söyler,

    sonra “have got” der,

    sonra da bir nesne söylersek,

    O ismin, nesnenin sahibi olduğunu

    Yani o isimdeki kişide nesnenin var olduğunu söylemiş oluruz.

    I have got a bag

    I have got a desk.

    Aile üyelerimizi de bu şekilde anlatabiliriz.

    I have got a family.

    I have got a brother.

    I have got two sisters.

    “Var mı?” diye sormak için “have” kelimesini cümlenin başına alırız.

    -Have you got a brother?

    -Yes I have a brother.

    “No” dersek, yani cümleyi olumsuz yapmak istersek “have” yerine “haven’t” kullanırız.

    -Have you got a pencil?

    -No I haven’t got pencil. I have got a book.

    -Have you got seven brothers?

    -No I haven’t. I have got two sisters.

    -Have you got a brothers?

    -No, I haven’t got a brother.

    -Have you got ten chairs?

    -No I haven’t got ten chairs. I have got 6 chairs.

    “Kaç tane” diye sormak için “how many” sorusunu sorarız.

    -How many brothers have you got?

    -I have got one brother.

    “How many” sorusundan sonra nesne, sonra “have” sonra isim ve en son da “got” gelir.

    -How many pencils have you got?

    -I have six pencils.

    -How many sisters have you got?

    -I have two sisters.

    “Have got” kalıbını hep “I” ve “you” ile kullandık. Şimdi başkaları için de kullanalım.

    “O” yani 3. tekil şahıs için kullanacağımız zaman, “have got” yerine “has got” deriz.

    Atatürk has got a father. His name is Ali Rıza Efendi.

    Atakan has got two sisters.

    Oğuz has got a book.

    Unit 4 - My clothes

    Red Blue Orange Green
    Purple Black Brown Yellow
    Grey Pink

    Lily has a brown hat

    Lily has a green skirt

    She has got an orange shirt.

    -Has George got a red sweater?

    -Yes, he has.

    -Has Mary got a hat?

    -No she hasn’t got a hat. Liz has got a hat.

    -What are those? Those are shoes.

    -Have you got trousers?

    -Yes I have.

    İngilizce “ne renk” diye sormak için “what colour” deriz.

    -What colour is this?

    -It is black.

    -What colour is that pencil?

    -It is red.

    I have got a blue shirt, and black shoes.

    “Onun” demek için, bahsettiğimiz kişi kız ise “her”, erkek ise “him” kullandığımızı söylemiştik..

    -Has Mary got a skirt?

    -What colour is her skirt?

    -It is red.

    -Who is that?

    -It is my friend.

    -What is his name?

    -His name is Mustafa.

    -Has Mustafa got a dog?

    -Yes, he has got a dog.

    -What colour is his dog?

    -It is brown.

    Unit 5 - Body Parts

    head

    hair

    arms

    hands

    fingers

    eyes

    ears

    nose

    mouth

    leg

    feet

    big

    small

    long

    short

    Dikkat etmemiz gereken şeyler:

    hair her zaman tekil kullanılır. “-s” eklenmez.

    “Eyes, ears” genellikle çift olduğu için, çoğul kullanılmalıdır.

    “ayak” yerine “foot” deriz, “foot” kelimesini çoğul yapacağımız zaman “feet” deriz. Sonuna “-s” eklenmez. İngilizce’de çoğul halleri özel olan başka kelimeler de vardır.

    İngilizce ‘de saç rengi için “sarışın” yerine “blonde” denir, “yellow” denmez.

    I have got long hair.

    Ayşe has got blue eyes.

    I have got ten fingers.

    Ali has got blue eyes and blonde hair. His father has got blonde hair too.

    My father hasn’t got blonde hair.

    A lion is yellow.

    I have got a gray cat. My cat has a long tail. His eyes are brown.

    Şu iki cümleye de dikkat edelim.

    A horse has long ears.

    Horses have long ears.

    Touch

    Point to

    Clap

    Tap

    My favourite cartoon character is Daffy Duck. He is black. He has got orange legs and orange feet. His neck is black and white. He has got big white eyes.

    Bir şeye sahip olduğumuzu “have got ve “has got” kullanarak belirtiriz.

    Unit 6 - Home Sweet Home

    “Nerede?” sorusunun İngilizce anlamı “Where is” dir. Kısaca “where’s” diye de yazılabilir.

    -Where is Atakan?

    -He is in the kitchen.

    -Where’s my father?

    -He is in the living room.

    -Is he in the bedroom?

    -No he isn’t. He is in the living room

    Bedroom

    Bathroom

    Kitchen

    Living room

    Bed

    wardrobe

    table

    mirror

    window

    Washbasin

    bathtub

    mirror

    toilet

    Cooker

    refrigerator

    table

    chairs

    cupboard

    Desk

    armchair

    sofa

    window

    table

    in

    içinde manası verir.

    on

    üstünde manasını verir.

    at

    belli bir noktada manasını verir.

    under

    altında manasını verir.

    next to

    bitişik, yanında manalarını katar.

    Şimdi de bu sözcükleri nasıl kullanacağımızı görelim.

    My jacket is in the wardrobe.

    The book is on the table.

    Ali is at the park.

    The carpet is under the table.

    The chairs are next to the table.

    -Where is the cupboard?

    -It is in the kitchen.

    -Where is the refrigerator?

    -It is in the kitchen too.

    -Is the television next to the bed?

    -No, the bed is in the bedroom and the television is in the living room.

    Şu ana kadar hep tekil şeylerin yerini sorduk ve söyledik. Yaptığımız bütün örneklerde özne üçüncü tekil şahıstı, yani “o” idi. Diğer kişiler için, veya çoğul şeyler için “are” kullanmalıyız. Yani:

    -Where are the chairs?

    -They are next to the table.

    -Where are his books?

    -His books are on the desk.

    -Where are the pencils?

    -They are in the pencil case.

    Bu ünitede öğreneceğimiz çok önemli bir diğer kullanım da “there is, there are” kullanımlarıdır. Kuralları, daha önce öğrendiğimiz “this is. these are” ile çok benzerdir. Bir yerde birşeyin olduğunu söylemek için “there is, there are” kullanırız.

    Mesela çantamda bir kalem var demek için:

    “There is a pencil in my bag” deriz.

    There are two cars on the road.

    There is a tree in the garden.

    There is a hat on my head.

    There is a cooker next to the refrigirator.

    There are pencils under the table.

    There is a living room in the house. There is a bookcase in the living room.

    -Is there a sofa in your living room?

    -Yes, there is a sofa in our living room.

    Unit 7 - Pets

    Bu bölümde 4.sınıftan 9. sınıfa kadar tüm İngilizce ders konularını örneklerle açıklayacağız.

    Tekil isimler ve sayılamayan isimler ile “there is” kullanıyoruz.

    Çoğul isimler ve sayılabilen isimler ile “there are” kullanıyoruz.

    İngilizce konuşurken bir şeyden kaç tane olduğunu sormak için de “how many?” deriz.

    Hayvanlar / Animals

    cat

    dog

    bird

    chicken

    cow

    sheep

    duck

    donkey

    horse

    fish

    frog

    rabbit

    bee

    giraffe

    mouse

    monkey

    lion

    bear

    tiger

    elephant

    parrot

    snake

    There are three cows, a sheep and three chickens in the farm.

    There are bears, lions and tigers in the zoo.

    -How many bears are there in the zoo?

    -There are four bears in the zoo

    -Is there a horse in the farm?

    -Yes, there is.

    -Where are the tigers?

    -They are in a cage.

    -What colour is a tiger?

    -It is orange, black and white.

    -Are the lions in a cage too?

    -Yes they are.

    10

    ten

    16

    sixteen

    11

    eleven

    17

    seventeen

    12

    twelve

    18

    eighteen

    13

    thirteen

    19

    nineteen

    14

    fourteen

    20

    twenty

    15

    fifteen

    11 ve 12 nin söylenişleri özeldir. 13’ten 19’a kadar olan sayıları ise, ikinci rakamın sonuna “teen” ekleyerek söyleriz.

    I have got twelve books in my bookcase.

    There are thirteen monkeys in the zoo.

    There are sixteen buttons on my telephone.

    -Has a donkey got four legs?

    -Yes, a donkey has got four legs. A horse has got four legs too.

    Unit 8 - My Weekly Schedule

    Days of the week:

    Pazar

    Sunday

    Pazartesi

    Monday

    Salı

    Tuesday

    Çarşamba

    Wednesday

    Perşembe

    Thursday

    Cuma

    Friday

    Cumartesi

    Saturday

    İngilizce ‘de, haftanın ilk günü Pazar günüdür.

    There are seven days in a week.

    There are two days in the weekend.

    Dersler / Subjects

    Maths

    Science and Technology

    Art

    Social Sciences

    Music

    Turkish

    Chess

    P.E. (Physical Education)

    English

    Computer

    Traffic

    Matematik

    Bilim ve Teknoloji

    Sanat

    Sosyal Bilimler

    Müzik

    Türkçe

    Satranç

    Beden Eğitimi

    İngilizce

    Bilgisayar

    Trafik

    -What subjects have you got today?

    -I have got Turkish, Computer and Social Sciences today.

    -Have you got an exam today?

    -No, I haven’t got an exam today.

    -How many subjects have you got today?

    -I have 6 subjects today. I have Art, Turkish, Social Sciences, Chess, Computer and P.E.

    Which subject do you like at school?

    I like Science and Technology

    Unit 9 - Timetables

    “What time is it?” sorusunun ne manaya geldiğini tahmin edebilidiniz mi? “Saat kaç?” demektir. İngilizce ‘de saati söylemek için önce sayıyı söyler sonra da “o’clock” deriz. Sayıları söylemeyi önceki ünitelerde öğrenmiştik.

    -What time is it?

    -It is two o’clock.

    It is ten o’clock.

    It is twelve o’clock.

    -Is it seven o’clock?

    -No it isn’t.

    -What time is it?

    -It is eight o’clock.

    -Oh, I’m late

    Sayıları öğrenmeye devam edelim.

    20

    twenty

    21

    twenty-one

    30

    thirty

    22

    twenty-two

    40

    forty

    23

    twenty-three

    50

    fifty

    24

    twenty-four

    60

    sixty

    25

    twenty-five

    70

    seventy

    26

    twenty-six

    80

    eighty

    27

    twenty-seven

    90

    ninety

    28

    twenty-eight

    29

    twenty-nine

    Sayıları ingilizce olarak söylemek, Türkçe’deki gibi çok kolaydır.

    Önce “twenty, forty, fifty” gibi baştaki sayıyı söleriz, sonra da diğer sayıyı söyleriz.

    32

    eighty-two

    28

    twenty-eight

    55

    fifty-five

    45

    forty-five

    67

    sixty-seven

    “True” “doğru”, “false” da “yanlış” demektir.

    -Is that a table or a desk?

    -It is a table

    Bir olayın saatini söylerken “at” kullanmalıyız.

    I have got Art at eleven o’clock.

    Ayşe has got Music at nine o’clock

    Bir olayın gününü söylerken ise “on” kullanmalıyız.

    Mete has got English on Monday at 2 o’clock.

    Joe has got Science and Technlogy on Thursday at 5 o’clock.

    Unit 10 - Birthdays

    Bir şeyin bir kişiye ait olduğunu söylemek istersek, O kişinin adının yanına “-s” harfi getiririz. Şimdi aşağıdaki ingilizce cümleleri inceleyelim.

    My father’s birthday is on Saturday.

    Betty’s birthday party is on Friday at 3 o’clock

    “‘s” ekleyince cümleye nasıl bir anlam eklemiş olduk, anladınız mı?

    “My father’s” diyince “babamın”

    “Betty’s” diyince “Betty’nin” demiş olduk.

     

    Asking about the age: yaş sorma-My father is thirty-eight years old.-How old are you?-I am eleven years old.-How old is Tolga?-Ali is nineteen years old.-How old is he?-He is sixteen years old.

     

    Şimdi de ayları öğrenelim.

    There are 12 months in a year.
    Ocak
    January
    Temmuz
    July
    Şubat
    February
    Ağustos
    August
    Mart
    March
    Eylül
    September
    Nisan
    April
    Ekim
    October
    Mayıs
    May
    Kasım
    November
    Haziran
    June
    Aralık
    December
    Cümle içinde, ayları söylemeden önce “in” demeliyiz.

     

     

    My birthday is in June.Ali’s birthday is in March.

    There are thirty days in April and June.

    There are thirty days in November too.

    There are thirty-one days in January and March.

    -How many days are there in February?

    -There are twenty-eight days in February.

    Unit 11 - Food and Drinks

    “Favourite” kelimesi “en sevdiğin” anlamındadır. Yani “What is your favourite food?” diyince, “En sevdiğin yemek nedir?” diye sormuş oluruz.

    -What is your favourite food?

    -My favourite food is chicken.

    Mete’s favourite food is pizza.

     

    Dikkatinizi çekti mi, cümlelere tek birşeyden bahsetmek (tek kalem gibi) için kelimeden önce “a” harfi ekledik.Birden fazla şeyden bahsettiğimizde de kelimenin sonuna “-s” ekini ekledik.Bu iki yöntemle bahsettiğimiz ingilizce bir kelimenin tekil mi çoğul mu olduğunu anlatmış oluyoruz. Şimdi bunları biraz daha yakından inceleyelim.”a” bir tane manasına gelir.a teachera cupa buildinga car

    a tree-What is that?

    -It is a book.Sesli bir harf ile başlayan kelimeler için “a” yerine “an” kullanırız.

    an orange

    an apple

    an egg

    an elephantThere is an apple in the refrigerator.

    There is an elephant and a bird in the picture.İçecekleri, sayamayacağımız için, içine koyduğumuz kaplarla birlikte söyleriz.

    a bottle of milk

    a cup of tea

    a cup of coffee

    a glass of waterBir şeyin miktarını sayısını söylemeden anlatmak için “some” veya “a lot of” kullanabiliriz.

    “some” “biraz” demektir.

    “A lot of” “çok” demektir.

     

    Some apples.

    A lot of apples.

     

     

    There are some oranges in the bag.

    There are a lot of oranges in the tree.

     

     

    -How many cars are there in the garage?

    -There are seven cars in the garage.

    Adjectives – Sıfatlar:

    hungry
    thirsty susamış
    bored sıkılmış
    tired yorulmuş
    cold soğuk, üşümüş
    hot sıcak, sıcaklamış

    I am hungry.

    My friend is thirsty.

    Ali isn’t bored.

    Joe is tired.

    Unit 12 - Seasons

    Şimdiki İngilizce dersimizde mevsimler ve her mevsime ait hava durumlarını öğreneceğiz.

    How many seasons are there in a year?

    There are four seasons in a year.

    summer
    yaz
    spring
    ilkbahar
    fall
    sonbahar
    autumn
    sonbahar
    winter
    kış

     

    in the morning

    at noon

    in the afternoon

    at night

    Hava durumu / weather
    sunny : güneşlicloudy : bulutlurainy : yağmurlu
    foggy : sislihot : sıcak
    windy : rüzgarlıstormy : fırtınalı
    snowy : karlı
    cold : soğuk

     

    In summer:
    It is sunny
    It is cloudy
    It is hot
    In spring:
    It is windy
    It is rainy
    It is sunny
    It is cloudy
    In winter:
    It is windy
    It is rainy
    It is snowy
    It is cloudy
    It is cold

    Hava durumunu birisine sormak için “What’s the weather like today?” deriz.

    -What’s the weather like today Tuğçe?

    -It is sunny. It is very hot.

    -I am hot.

    -Take off your coat.

    take off: çıkart

    -I am cold.

    Put on your sweater

    put on: giyin

    -What’s the weather like today dad?

    -It is rainy. Put on your raincoat and take an umbrella.

    -Where is my coat?

    -It is in the wardrobe.

    -Where is the umbrella?

    -It is in the bathroom.

    -Look, Joe! It is snowy. Put on your gloves.

    -OK. Is it windy?

    -No it isn’t.

    It is rainy in Ankara.

    It is snowy in Erzurum.

    It is sunny in Antalya.

    “Favourite” kelimesini burada da kullanabiliriz.

    My favourite season is spring. It isn’t hot. It isn’t snowy. It is rainy.

    There is some snow in the garden.

    There isn’t a lot of snow in the street.

    Unit 13 - Toys

    İngilizce Toys – Oyuncaklar

    ball: top plane: uçak car: araba bcycle: bisiklet teddy bear: peluş ayı

    doll: oyuncak bebek kite: uçurtma rubber duck: plastik ördek

    -I have got a ball, a car, a plane and a bicycle. I haven’t got a doll or a kite.

    -What is your favourite toy?

    -My favourite toy is my black ball.

    -Have you got a robot Aykut?

    -No, I haven’t got a robot. I have got a rubber duck.

    -What colour is your rubber duck?

    -My rubber duck is green.

    -Is there a doll in your room Aygün?

    -Yes, there is. I have got three dolls.

    -What colour is your favourite doll Aygün?

    -My favourite doll is pink.

     

    60
    sixty
    70
    seventy
    80
    eighty
    90
    ninety
    100
    One hundred

    -Where are your clothes?

    -They are on the bed.

    -Put your clothes in the wardrobe.

    -Where is the dustbin?

    -It is next to the chair.

    -Is your teddy bear brown?

    -Yes it is.

    -Is it tall?

    -No it isn’t. My robot is tall.

    -Have you got a big yellow bike?

    -No, I have got a small red bike.

    Unit 14 - Physical Appearance

    Aşağıdaki tabloda sol tarafta ülke adları vee sağ tarafta da uyruk adları göreceksiniz.

    Kendimizi İngilizce ifade ederken, “Ben Türk’üm” demek için “I am Turkish” deriz.

    “Türkiye’liyim” demek için “I am from Turkey” deriz.

    Ülke adı
    Uyruğun söylenişi
    Turkey
    Turkish
    Spain
    Spanish
    Japan
    Japanese
    Britain
    British (English)
    Germany
    German
    Italy
    Italian
    the USA
    American

     

    Joe is American.

    Bill is English.

    Hans is German.

    Franc is French.

    Yoko is Japanese.

    Surname veya “last name” soyadı anlamına geliyor.

    Name:
    Michael
    What is his name?
    His name is Michael.
    Surname:
    Schumacher
    What is his surname?
    His surname is Schumacher.
    Age:
    36
    How old is he?
    He is thirty-six years old.
    Nationality:
    German
    What is his nationality?
    He is German.

     

    beautiful
    ugly
    fat
    thin
    tall
    short
    old
    young
    happy
    sad

    Bu kavramlar zıt anlamlıdır.

    -Is John tall or short?

    -John is tall.

    -Is your mother old?

    -No she isn’t.

    -How old is she?

    -She’s forty years old.

    Katty is tall.

    Katty is thin.

    She is young.

    She has got blackeyes and blonde hair.

    She has got pink trousers.

    She has got a blue blouse.

    George is very tall and very fat. He has got brown eyes and very short black hair. He has got a white shirt. He has got yellow shorts and yellow shoes.

    Sitemizdeki bu bölümü özellikle okul İngilizcesine yönelik olarak hazırladık. 14 üniteden oluşan 4. sınıf İlköğretim dersleri bölümünde 1. üniteden başlayarak sırasıyla Tanışma diyalogları, This/That, How many, Have/Has got, Renkler, Edatlar, Günler, Sayılar, Aylar, Sıfatlar ile ilgili konuları işledik. Konu anlatımları öğrencilerin seviyelerine göre, kolay, anlaşılır bir dilde, örnekler verilerek açıklanmıştır. Sitemizin bu bölümü İlköğretim seviyesindeki çocukların İngilizce derslerinde umuyoruz ki çok faydalı bir kaynak olacaktır.

  • Unit 1 - Countries

    -Who’s Sarah?

    -Sarah is my new e-friend.

    -How old is she?

    -Sarah is eleven years old.

    -Where is she?

    -She’s in Birmingham city.

    -Is Birmingham a small city?

    -No, Birmingham is a big city. There are a lot of factories in Birmingham.

    -What nationality is she?

    -She’s British.

    -Has she got sisters and brothers?

    -Yes, she has got two sisters and three brothers.

    -What’s the weather like in Birmingham?

    -It’s not very warm. It’s rainy and windy.

    Daha önceki ingilizce derslerimizde öğrendiklerimizi hatırlamış olduk.

    Soru sormak ve cevaplamak

    -What is your name?

    -My name is Timur.

    -Where is your book?

    -My book is in my bag.

    -How old are you?

    -I am thirteen years old.

    Have got, has got

    I have got a black pen.

    My father has got a car.

    There is, there are

    There is a ball in the box.

    There are dolls on the bed.

    Tekil şeylerden bahsederken “There is”

    Çoğul şeylerden bahsederken “There are” kullanmalıyız.

    Çağatay is twelve years old.

    Melis isn’t twelve years old. She is eleven years old.

    Kemal has got a big family. He has got three sisters and five brothers.

    Neşe is very tall. She isn’t fat.

    Unit 2 - Regions

    İngilizce ‘de “Regions”, “bölgeler” manasına gelir.

    Region

    Mediterrenean Region

    City

    Erzurum

    Mountain

    Toros mountains

    Lake

    Beyşehir

    Valley

    Çukurova

    River

    Seyhan

    Konya is in Central Anatolia Region. Mevlana is very famous in Konya.

    There is a very big Konya Valley in Central Anatolia Region.

    Lake Tuz is in this region too.

    There are mountains in picture B.

    There is a river in picture B.

    There isn’t a river in picture A.

    There is no river in picture A.

    Bir şeyin olmadığını belirtmek için “there isn’t, there aren’t” demek yerine, “there is no, there are no” kullanmak daha uygundur.

    Unit 3 - Capital Cities

    Capital Cities: Başkentler:

    What is the capital of Turkey?

    Türkiye’s capital is Ankara.

    Spain’s capital is Madrid.

    Paris is France’s capital.

    Berlin is Germany’s capital.

    The River Thames is in Britain. It is in London.

    Buckhingam Palace is in London too.

    in in the middle of

    near

    across

    in front of by behind

    Bu kelimeciklerin ingilizce cümlelere kattığı anlamı anlamaya çalışalım.

    There is a dog in the garden.

    There are flowers in front of the window.

    There is a tree in the middle of the garden.

    The dog is by the tree.

    The tree is near the street.

    My ball is behind my bed.

    My friend’s house is across the street.

    Sırasıyla “içinde”, “önünde”, “ortasında”, “yanında”, “yakınında”, “arkasında”, “karşısında” manaları katıyorlar.

    “(Bir yere) nasıl giderim” diye sormak için “How can I get to………” kalıbını kullanabiliriz.

    A:Where is the Cafe?

    B:It is next to the police station.

    A:Is it near the book store?

    B:No it isn’t

    A:How can I get to the Cafe?

    B:Walk down the road. Turn left to Eagle Street. Cafe is on your left.

    A:Thank you!

    B:Goodbye.

    My house is next to the bank. The police station is across the street from my house. The art museum isn’t near my house.

    Where is your house? Is your house behind the supermarket? Is it next to the theatre or the library?

    -Excuse me, how can I get to Sultanahmet?

    -Walk down the road. Turn left at the traffic lights. It is on the right. It is near Ayasofya.

    The cafe is next to the cinema and behind the muesum.

    The park is across the street.

    Walk down to road.

    The cafe is on your left.

    The cafe is at the corner of West Street and North Street.

    Unit 4 - School Life

    Be quiet in the classroom.

    Keep the garden clean.

    Don’t shout in the classroom.

    Do your homework.

    Keep your room tidy.

    Be quiet in the classroom.

    Don’t come to the class late.

    Bu cümlelerde ortak bir şey farkettiniz mi? Hiç birinin başında özne yok. İngilizce dilbilgisinde bu tür yapılan cümlelere “emir kipleri” diyoruz. Birinin bir şeyi yapmasını veya yapmamasını söylerken bu yapıyı kullanıyoruz.

    -What have you got in your school bag?

    -I have got five books, three notebooks, two pencils, a pencil sharpner and an eraser.

    -Put your maths book and notebook on your desk. Put your bag under the chair.

    -Give me your pen.

    -Here you are.

    -Thank you.

    Draw a map.

    Don’t shout in the classroom.

    Study your lesson.

    Do your homework.

    Unit 5 - School Store

    Bazı okul araç gereçlerinin ingilizce karşılıkları:

    paper clips : ataç

    pencil case: kalem kutusu

    ruler : cetvel

    crayon : pastel boya

    pencil : kalem

    eraser : silgi

    paint brush : boya fırçası

    coloured pencils : boya kalemleri

    pen : dolma kalem

    file : dosya

    palette : palet

    glue : yapışkan

    pencil sharpener : kalemtraş

    folder : klasör

    pencil sharpener : kalemtraş

    scissors : makas

    There are five balls, eight notebooks, three bags, six rulers, ten pencils in the pictures.

    There are five children in the classroom.

    There is a blackboard in the classroom, too.

    Excuse me!

    -Good morning!

    -Good morning!

    -A pencil case and two blue pens please!

    -Sure… Here you are!

    -How much?

    -Let me see. The pencil case is £2 and the pens are £1. Altogether £3 please!

    -£3?… Ok! Here it is! Thanks a lot!

    -Thanks!

    -Goodbye.

    -Bye!

    There are five balls, eight notebooks, three bags, six rulers, ten pencils in the pictures.

    There are five children in the classroom. There is a blackboard in the classroom, too.

    -How many pages are there in your Science and Technology book?

    -There are one hundred pages in my Science and Technology book.

    Unit 6 - Physical Education

    Kendimizden ingilizce olarak bahsederken, yeteneklerimiz hakkında da bir şeyler anlatırız. Becerilerimizi “can” kelimesiyle anlatabiliriz. “can” cümleye “yapabilir” anlamı katar. can den sonra gelen fiil hep yalın haldedir.

    I can ride a bicycle.

    Ali can swim.

    I can run fast.

    -Can you play table tennis?

    -Yes, I can.

    Olumsuz yapmak için “can” yerine ” can’t ” deriz. Böylece cümleye “yapamaz” anlamı katmış oluruz. Can’t ” cannot ” ifadesinin kısaltılmış halidir. Yani can yerine cannot da diyebiliriz.

    -Can you lift weights?

    -No, I can’t.

    I can’t play volleyball.

    I cannot swim.

    I have got a baby brother. He is one year old. He can’t speak. He can’t run. He can’t jump.

    I can jump but my brother can’t.

    I can talk but my brother can’t.

    My friend can swim very fast but I can’t.

    My friend and I can play table tennis.

    Soru haline getirmek için “can”i cümlenin başına getiririz. Yine yüklem olan fiil yalın halde kalır.

    -Can you ride a bicycle?

    -Yes I can.

    -Can you drive a car?

    -No I can’t, but my father can.

    A cat can climb trees but a dog can’t

    A cat and a monkey can climb trees.

    A fish can swim but a bird can’t

    -Can a rabbit run fast?

    -Yes it can.

    -Can it fly too?

    -No, it can’t fly

    Unit 7 - Likes and Dislikes

    İngilizce konuşurken bir şeyden hoşlandığımızı nasıl ifade ederiz? Bunu “Like” kelimesini kullanarak yaparız. Like ifadesi sevmek, hoşlanmak manasına gelir. Sevdiğimiz şeyleri anlatmak için “I like…” diye cümleye başlarız. Olumsuz ise “don’t like” olarak kullanır. Sevmediğimiz şeyleri anlatmak için “I don’t like…..” diye cümleye başlarız.

    I like tea.

    I like milk.

    I don’t like coke.

    I like chicken. I don’t like hamburger.

    Soru haline getirmek, yani “sever misin?” diye sormak için “Do you like…….?” kalıbını kullanırız.

    -Do you like ice cream?

    -Yes I do.

    -Do you like chocolate?

    -Yes, of course I like chocolate.

    -I like tea and milk. Do you like tea and milk too?

    -No, I don’t like tea and milk. I like coffee.

    Sevdiğimiz iki şeyi sıralarken araya “and” yazmalıyız. “and”, “ve” manasına gelir.

    I like kebab and salad.

    Sevmediğimiz iki şeyi sıralarken ise araya “or” yazılır. “or”, “veya” manasına gelir.

    I don’t like carrot or lettuce.

    Sevdiğimiz bir şeyi söyledikten hemen sonra, başka birşeyi sevmediğimizi söyleyecek olursak, araya “but” yazmalıyız. “but”, “fakat” manasına gelir.

    I like oranges but I don’t like bananas.

    -Do you like orange juice?

    -Yes I like orange juice. veya -Yes, I do veya -Yes.

    -Do you like cheese?

    -No, I don’t like cheese veya -No, I don’t veya -No.

    -Do you like chocolate?

    -Yes, I like chocolate very much. I like cakes very much too but I don’t like pudding.

    Unutmayalım, bu şekilde sadece sevdiğimiz (veya sevmediğimiz) nesneleri anlatabiliriz, bu nesneleri ifade etmek için sadece isim kullanmalıyız, fiil kullanmamalıyız. Sevdiğimiz aktiviteleri anlatmayı sonraki ünitede göreceğiz.

    Unit 8 - My Favourite Activities

    Sevdiğimiz veya sevmediğimiz eylemlerden, aktivitelerden bahsetmek için de “like” veya “don’t like” kullanabiliriz. Eylemlerden bahsetmek için fiil kullanırız. “like” ve “don’t like” tan sonra fiil kullanacağımız zaman fiilin sonuna “-ing” ekleyerek kullanmalıyız.

    I like dancing and listening to music.

    I don’t like playing football.

    I don’t like skating but I like cycling.

    Çok sevdiğimiz şeyleri “love” kelimesini kullanarak anlatabiliriz. “like” kelimesinden daha kuvvetli bir ifade sağlar.

    I love playing computer games.

    I love watching TV.

    I love reading history books.

    Nefret ettiğimiz şeyleri ise “hate” kelimesini kullanarak anlatabiliriz. “don’t like” kelimesinden daha kuvvetli bir ifade sağlar.

    I hate getting up early.

    I hate playing chess.

    I like eating ice cream and I love chocolate ice cream.

    I love drawing pictures.

    I don’t like walking and I hate running.

    Şu diyalogları anlamaya çalışalım:

    -Aytuğ, do you like pizza?

    -Yes, I love pizza.

    -What about hamburger? Do you like it?

    -No, I don’t like it very much.

    -Oh, you hate hambergers!

    -No,I don’t hate them, I just don’t like them very much.

    Aytuğ çok sevmediğini, fakat nefret de etmediğini söylüyor.

    -Aytuğ, do you like chess?

    -Yes, I love chess but I can’t play it very well.

    -Do you like playing chess?

    -I love watching a chess match, but I don’t like playing it.

    Bu diyalogda da Aytuğ satranç oyununu çok sevdiğini, ama iyi oynayamadığı için satranç oynamayı sevmediğini söylüyor. Aytuğ satranç maçlarını seyretmeyi çok sever.

    Gördüğünüz gibi ingilizce konuşurken rahatlıkla love, like, hate gibi fiilleri diğer eylemler ile kullanarak, neyi yapmayı sevip sevmediğimizi de bu şekilde ifade edebiliriz. Tabiki ikinci fiilin sonuna hep -ing takısı getirmeyi unutmuyoruz.

    Unit 9 - Farm Life

    Bu ünitede de ingilizce olarak “ben severim” demek yerine “biz severiz” , “onlar sever” diyerek, bizim ve başkalarının sevdiği ve sevmediği şeylerden bahsedeceğiz.

    Dogs like going for a walk

    Goats like climbing rocks.

    My friend and I like playing football. We like playing football.

    “We” kelimesinin anlamını tahmin edebildiniz mi? “biz” manasına gelir.

    My brothers don’t like running. They are lazy.

    “They” kelimesinin anlamını tahmin edebildiniz mi? “onlar” manasına gelir.

    My mother and I like shopping.

    We like shopping.

    My father and my sisters don’t like shopping.

    They don’t like shopping.

    Dogs don’t like grass but cows love it.

    Cats hate dogs but cows don’t hate dogs.

    Dogs say:

    I say:

    We like running in fields.

    We like guarding the farm.

    We love eating meat.

    We hate cats.

    We don’t like water.

    They like running in fields.

    They like guarding the farm.

    They love eating meat.

    They hate cats.

    They don’t like water.

    -Do dogs like cats?

    -No they don’t like cats. They hate cats.

    -Do dogs hate running in fields?

    -No, They like it.

    -Do dogs like eating meat and guarding the farm?

    -Yes, dogs love eating meat and they like guarding the farm.

    Unit 10 - Cartoon Characters

    Şu ana kadar hep “ben, sen, biz ve onlar” zamirlerini kullandık. Şimdi ise 3. tekil şahıs, yani “o” zamirini kullanmayı öğreneceğiz. İngilizce dilbilgisinde 3. tekil şahsın kullanımı biraz farklıdır, onun için tüm dikkatimizi konuya vermeliyiz.

    I like reading books. My friend likes reading books too.

    My dog hates cats.

    My mother loves watching TV.

    My sister loves playing volleyball.

    Gördüğünüz gibi, fiilden sonra “-s” eki ekledik. Bunu sadece 3. tekil şahıslar için yaparız.

    Superman can fly. He likes flying.

    Spiderman can climb buildings. He loves catching criminals.

    Negatif yapacağımız yerlerde ise, “don’t” yerine “doesn’t” kullanırız.

    My friend’s cat doesn’t like water. He hates water.

    Tom doesn’t like Jerry. He hates Jerry.

    My mother doesn’t like playing computer games. She hates them.

    Erkekler için “he”, kadınlar (dişiler) için “she” kullanılır.

    My sister likes studying maths but she doesn’t like studying history.

    My friend doesn’t like cheese but she loves pizza.

    Soru cümlelerinde “do” yerine “does” kullanırız. Ancak unutmayalım, sadece 3. tekil şahıslar için “does” kullanıyoruz. Diğer şahıslarda yine “do” kullanacağız.

    -Does Gloria like Superman?

    -Yes, she loves Superman.

    -What about you?

    -No, I don’t like superman much but I like Batman.

    -Does your car go very fast?

    -No, my car is old.

    Unit 11 - Personal Possessions

    -Hello. My name is George. What is your name?

    -Hi, My name is Susan. And this is my friend.

    -What is your friend’s name?

    -Her name is Sally.

    -Nice to meet you Sally.

    İngilizce isimlerin ve kişi adlarının sonuna “‘s” ekleyerek sahiplik bildiririz, yani “bir şeyin o isme ait olduğunu”anlatırız.

    The friend’s name is Aysan.

    This is the uncle’s house.

    These are my friends’s photos.

    That car is my teacher’s car.

    Aysan’s grandfather is very old.

    Bunlardan başka, iyelik sıfatları kullanarak da sahiplik bildirebiliriz.

    My name

    Benim adım

    Your name

    Senin adın

    My dog

    Your dog’s name

    Benim köpeğim

    Senin köpeğinin adı

    Your dog

    Its name

    Senin köpeğin

    Onun adı

    Bunlara iyelik sıfatları denir.

    I

    My

    My pencil

    This is my pencil.

    He

    She

    It

    His

    Her

    Its

    His pen

    Her pencil

    Its toy

    His pen is blue.

    Her pencil is new.

    The dog likes its toy. Its toy is red.

    We

    You

    They

    Our

    Your

    Their

    Our car

    Your book

    Their house

    Our car is a Mercedes.

    Your book’s name is “Three Man in a Boat”.

    Their house is next to the cinema.

    I am Joe.

    My name is Joe.

    My friend loves chicken.

    His favourite food is chicken.

    Susan has got a white dress.

    Her dress is beautiful.

    I have got a teddy bear.

    Its name is Cuddles.

    We have got a very big house.

    Our house is very big.

    Do you like going to school?

    Your school is next to the bank.

    They have got a big garden.

    Their garden is very big.

    Doctors have got stethoscopes. Doctors have got white coats too.

    This is my doctor’s stethoscope. This is his stethoscope.

    A hairdresser has got combs, mirrors, scissors and hair pins in her saloon.

    This is her comb and those are her hair pins.

    “Whose” sorusunu, “kimin” diye sormak için kullanırız.

    -There are books on my desk. Are these your books?

    -No they aren’t.

    -Whose are these books?

    -They are my cousin’s books.

    -Whose shirt is blue?

    -My shirt is blue. Their shirts are blue too.

    Unit 12 - Health Problems

    head : baş

    neck : boyun

    shoulders : omuzlar

    hair : saç

    throat : boğaz

    eyes : gözler

    ears : kulaklar

    nose : burun

    mouth : ağız

    teeth : dişler

    lips : dudaklar

    brain : beyin

    heart : kalp

    stomach : mide

    chest : göğüs

    back : sırt

    arms : kollar

    elbows : dirsekler

    hands : eller

    fingers : parmaklar

    nails : tırnaklar

    legs : bacaklar

    knee : diz

    feet : ayaklar

    toes : ayak parmakları

    İngilizce ‘de bazı isimler sayılabilir, bazıları sayılamaz. “hair” sayılamadığı için, çoğul yapılmaz.

    “tooth” kelimesinin çoğulu “teeth” olarak kullanılır, sonuna “-s” gelmez.

    “foot” kelimesinin çoğulu “feet” olarak kullanılır, sonuna “-s” gelmez.

    Diğerlerinin sonuna “-s” ekleyerek çoğul yapabiliriz. Tablomuzdaki öğelerden bazıları zaten çoğul haldedir.

    -Jim is absent today.

    -What’s the matter with him?

    -He has got a cold. He has got high temperature and he has got a sore throat.

    -He should go to a doctor.

    “What’s the matter with …..” öbeğinin “onun nesi var?” anlamına geliyor.

    Headache

    You should take an asprin.

    Backache

    You should lie down. You shouldn’t lift heavy things.

    Stomachache

    You should go to a doctor.

    Toothache

    You should go to a dentist.

    Sore throat

    You shouldn’t shout.

    Cough

    You should eat chicken soup.

    Cold

    You should wear thick clothes.

    Flu

    You should stay in bed and rest.

    “Should” ile “shouldn’t” kelimelerinin manalarını anlayabildiniz mi? Cümleye “yapmalısın” veya “yapmamalısın” şeklinde tavsiye manası katıyor.

    Birisine bişey yapmasını tavsiye etmek için “should” kullanırız.

    You should brush your teeth everyday.

    You should eat a lot of vegetables.

    It is rainy today. We should take an umbrella.

    Ahmet and Ali are very tired. They should rest.

    I should study hard.

    -Sally has got a toothache.

    -She should go to a dentist.

    Birisine bişey yapmamasını tavsiye etmek için “shouldn’t” kullanırız. “shouldn’t”, “should not” kelimelerinin kısaltılmış halidir. Her iki şekilde de kullanılabilir.

    You should not talk in the classroom.

    We shouldn’t drop litter on the street.

    We shouldn’t take any medicine without seeing a doctor.

    It is rainy today. We should not go out without our raincoats.

    -What’s the matter with William?

    -William has got sore throat.

    -He should not shout. He should rest his voice. He shouldn’t drink anything cold and he shouldn’t eat ice cream.

    -Hello doctor.

    -Hi. What’s the matter with you?

    -I have a bad cough and my throat is sore.

    -You have a cold!

    -What should I do?

    -You should stay in bed for two days. And you should take these medicines.

    -Can I see my friends tonight?

    -You shouldn’t see your friends. You should rest.

    -Can I go to school tomorrow?

    -You shouldn’t go to school.

    -OK. Thank you doctor.

    -You’re welcome. Get better soon.

    Unit 13 - Fun at the Park

    I am playing with my friends in the park.

    We are playing football.

    My mother is talking to my friend’s mother.

    There are other kids in the park too. They are climbing a tree.

    İngilizce konuşurken, bazen şu anda, konuşma anında yaptığımız şeylerden bahsederiz. Daha önce “am, is, are” kelimelerini görmüştük. Şimdi verdiğimiz örneklerde bu sözcüklerden sonra sonuna “-ing” eklenmiş fiiller geldiğini görüyoruz. Anlamlarını kavramaya çalışalım.

    Two girls are playing on the seesaw.

    A baby is playing with a ball.

    Sammy and Zoe are riding their bicycles.

    My brother is sliding.

    My sister is running. She is very tired.

    Burada verdiğimiz örneklerin hepsinde şu anda devam eden aktiviteler anlatılıyor. Türkçe’de buna “şimdiki zaman” diyoruz.

    It is 9 o’clock.

    I am writing a letter.

    My mother is cooking.

    My father is watching TV.

    My grandmother is reading the newspaper.

    My grandfather is talking to my aunt.

    What are you doing?

    “am, is, are” sözcüklerine yardımcı fiil denir. Soru sormak için cümlede “am, is, are” dan hangisi kullanılmışsa, onu başa alırız.

    Are you listening to music?

    Are you drawing a picture?

    Are they talking or playing a game?

    Is he running?

    -Hi, Mrs. Brown.

    -Hello Tony.

    -Is John at home?

    -Yes, he is.

    -What is he doing?

    -He is studying in his room. He has got a maths exam tomorrow.

    -Can he come out and play?

    -I’m afraid no. He should study tonight.

    -Is he studying alone?

    -No, there is a friend in his room. They are studying together.

    Olumsuz yapmak için de, daha önce de yaptığımız gibi “am, is, are” yerine “am not, isn’t, aren’t” kullanırız.

    -Is John coming out to play?

    -No, he isn’t coming out today. He is studying.

    -Is he studying for an exam?

    -Yes he is.

    -Are you playing football or basketball?

    -We aren’t playing football or basketball, we are playing volleyball.

    John and Jack aren’t playing with other kids. They are sitting on the bench.

    Unit 14 - Helping the Family

    Şİmdiki zamanın ingilizce olarak nasıl ifade edildiğini gördük. Şimdi aile üyelerinin neler yaptıklarına dair kurulan cümlelere bakalım.

    The young boy is doing his homework.

    His sister is vacuuming.

    His other sister is dusting.

    The mother is washing the dishes.

    My mother is doing the laundry. She is washing the clothes.

    I am not cooking. I am tidying my room.

    My sister is cleaning the windows.

    Örneklerde bahsettiğimiz ev işlerini anlayabildiniz mi?

    -Can you help your sister with her homework?

    -Yes I can help her.

    -Can you sweep the floor?

    -No, I can’t. I am tidying my room.

    -Can you take the dog out for a walk?

    -No I can’t. I am studying.

    -Can you help your father with cutting the grass?

    -Sure.

    Bu sorular rica manası taşır.

    Who can help me with washing the car?

    Who can help me with cleaning the living room?

    Bu sorularda da “bana kim yardım edebilir?” diye sorduk..

    14 uniteden oluşan 5.sınıf okul ingilizcesi derslerimizde ülkeler, bölgeler,şehirler, yer ve yön sorma,can/yetenekler, like/dislike, aktiviteler, hayvanlar, geniş zaman/do/does, şimdiki zaman ve iyelik sıfatları ile ilgili konular ayrıntılı olarak işlenmiş ve örneklerle zenginleştirilmiştir. Ayrı ayrı derslerde yer alan okul araç gereçleri,insan vücudu ve hastalık adları ile ilgili hazırladığımız sözlük tabloları kelime hazinenizi daha da zenginleştirecektir.

  • Unit 1 - Family

    DIANA’S FAMILY TREE…

    Diana’nın aile ağacı’na bakalım. Aşağıda Diana aile üyelerinden bahseden bir yazı yazmış. Yazıyı okuyalım ve soruların cevaplarını inceleyelim.

    My name is Diana. I am thirteen years old. This is my family tree. I haven’t got a big family. There are eight people in my family.

    I have got a brother. His name is Joe.He is twenty years old. He is a web designer.

    My mother’s name is Mary. She is thirty-nine years old. She is a housewife.

    My father’s name is George. He is thirty-nine too. He is a policeman.

    Joe and I have got an uncle. Our uncle’s name is Thomas. He is forty-two years old. Uncle Thomas is my father’s brother.

    We have got an aunt too. Her name is Lisa. She is thirty years old. She is a doctor.

    My grandparents’s names are Mark and Jane. Mark is my grandfather. He is sixty-five years old and he is a lawyer. Jane is my grandmother. She is sixty-two years old.

    I love my family.

    Diana is Joe’s brother.

    George is Lisa’s brother and Mary’s husband.

    Jane is Mark’s wife.

    Diana and Joe are Jane and Mark’s grandchildren.

    Joe is Jane and Mark’s grandchild.

    -Is Thomas Joe’s father?

    -No he isn’t. He is Joe’s uncle. Joe’s father is George.

    -How old is Lisa?

    -She is thirty years old.

    -What does Mark do?

    -He is a lawyer.

    -What is Mark’s job?

    -He is a lawyer.

    -Who is thirty-nine years old?

    -Mary is thirty-nine years old. George is thirty-nine years old too.

    Mary and George are thirty-nine years old.

    -Who has got a sister?

    -Joe has got a sister. Thomas and George have got a sister too.

    Is your family big?

    Have you got brothers or sisters? What are their names?

    Is there a pilot in your family?

    Have you got a grandmother? What is her name? How old is she?

    Has your father got a grandmother? What is her name? How old is she?

    Unit 2 - Hobbies and Interests

    I have got some free time.

    My favourite free time activity is cycling.

    My hobby is collecting stamps.

    Meet Bill. He is my best friend.

    I like playing basketball. Bill likes playing basketball too.

    I like listening to rock music but Bill likes listening to classical music.

    Bill and I like playing computer games.

    Bill and I dislike reading a newspaper.

    I like studying maths. I am very good at maths. Bill dislikes maths. He isn’t good at maths.

    My favourite free time activity is dancing.

    Bill’s favourite free time activity is painting.

    My father is a photographer. He likes taking photograps.

    I like watching cartoons but my father dislikes it.

    My father dislikes fishing. I dislike fishing too.

    Gördüğünüz gibi, sevdiğimiz şeylerden bahsederken “like” fiilini kullanırız. Sevmediğimiz şeylerden bahsederken ise “dislike” fiilini kullanırız. Ayrıca bunun yerine “don’t like” da diyebiliriz.

    En çok dikkat etmemiz gereken şey şudur; Eğer cümlenin öznesi “o” ise, yani 3. tekil şahıs ise fiilin sonuna “-s” eki eklenmelidir.

    I like painting.

    He likes fishing.

    I dislike reading a story.

    Mary dislikes swimming.

    Olumsuz halde 3. tekil şahıs için “doesn’t” kullanılır.

    I don’t like going for a walk.

    She doesn’t like cycling.

    Unutmayalım, “-s” eklenmesi için öznenin hem tekil olması, hem de 3. şahıs olması lazım. “ben” veya “sen” özne olursa “-s” kullanılmaz!

    Ten students like playing basketball but three students dislike it.

    I like playing basketball and playing chess.

    All students like swimming.

    No student likes playing golf.

    Bir de soru cümlesi kurmayı öğrenelim. Cümlenin başına “do” sözcüğü ekleriz.

    -I like running. Do you like running?

    -Yes, I do. veya Yes, I like running.

    Eğer özne 3. tekil şahıs ise, “does” ekleriz. “does” eklemişsek, yüklemin sonuna “-s” eklenmez.

    -Does Tolga like running?

    -Yes, he does. veya Yes, he likes running.

    -Does Aygün like running too?

    -No, she doesn’t. veya No, she doesn’t like running.

    Gördüğünüz gibi, hobilerimiz veya ilgi alanlarımızdan bahsederken geniş zamanı kullanıyoruz.

    İngilizce çalışırken geniş zamanın kurallarını hep tekrar edelim. Olumlu, düz cümleler kurarken, he, she, it özneleri ile kullandığımız fiilllerin sonuna -s takısı getirmeyi unutmayalım.

    Yine 3. tekil şahıslar ile soru ve olumsuz cümleler yaparken, does yardımcı fiilini kullanıp, -s takısını kaldırmayı unutmayalım.

    Unit 3 - Food and Drinks

    Bu bölümde yiyecek ve içecekler ile ilgili cümleler kuracağız. Ayrıca sayılamayan ve sayılabilen isimlerden bahsedeceğiz.

    -We have got pizza for dinner today.

    -Is there any cheese in the pizza?

    -Yes, there is some cheese in the pizza.

    -Is there any meat in the pizza?

    -There is some meat in the pizza too.

    -Are there any vegetables in the pizza?

    -Yes, there are tomatoes, onions and mushrooms in the pizza.

    -Is the pizza hot?

    -Yes it is very hot. I just baked it.

    -Is there any dessert for dinner tonight?

    -Yes, there is a cake.

    -What’s there in the cake?

    -There is chocolate, bananas and strawberries in the cake.

    -Oh, it is very good.

    Our shopping list:

    a bottle of milk

    a bag of potatoes

    five liters of water

    two cartons of apple juice

    two bars of soap

    ten cans of coke

    two kilos of oranges

    a loaf of bread

    a bag of sugar

    one chicken

    a jar of honey

    a box of choclate

    I need a bottle of milk and a bag of sugar.

    The cook needs a bag sugar, a bag of flour, some water, three eggs for a cake.

    My mother needs two cartons of milk and ten cans of coke for the party.

    Let’s in anlamı “haydi” dir. İngilizce konuşurken birine “Let’s go” dediğimizde “haydi gidelim” manasına gelmiş olur.

    Let’s go to a cafe.

    -Hello, welcome to our cafe.

    -Hi.

    -What would you like to eat or drink?

    -I’d like some coffee.

    -Of course.

    -Can I have some cake too?

    -Sure.

    -How much?

    -That’s 5 liras and fifty kuruş.

    -Here you are.

    -Thank you.

    My father usually has two slices of toast and some soup for breakfast. He likes soup very much.

    My mother usually has an egg, some cheese and some olives for breakfast.

    I have a lot of tomatoes and cucumbers for breakfast. I’d like to some tea with lots of sugar too but I don’t like honey.

    -How much money have you got in your pocket?

    -I have got a lot of money. We can go shopping.

    -What do you need?

    -I need some vegetables. I need three carrots and many potatoes.

    -Do you need a lot of tomatoes too?

    -Yes, I do.

    -How many tomatoes do you need?

    -I need eight tomatoes.

    Sayılabilen ve çoğul yapılabilen şeylerin miktarını soracağımız zaman “how many” sorusunu kullanırız.

    Sayılamayan ve çoğul yapılamayan şeylerin miktarını soracağımız zaman “how much” sorusunu kullanmalıyız.

    Peki neler sayılamaz?

    Genellikle çok küçük tanecikli şeyler (şeker, un, tuz gibi) ve sıvılar ve sayılamaz. Bunları asla “-s” eki ile çoğul yapamayız. Şekli tam belli olmayan şeyleri (çikolata, et, peynir gibi) de sayamayız.

    Sayamadığımız şeylerin miktarını belirtmek için paketlerinden veya ağırlıklarından yararlanırız.

    a bag of sugar

    a box of chocolate

    Hem sayılabilen, hem de sayılamayan şeyler için “some” veya “a lot of” kullanabiliriz. Bunlar çokluk bildirdiği için, sayılabilen nesneler ile bu ifadeleri kullanacaksak, “-s” eki eklenerek ismi çoğul yapmalıyız..

    Some apples

    some sugar

    a lot of cars

    a lot of water

    Unit 4 - Daily Life and Routine

    Bu dersimizde günlük hayatta yaptığımız rutin şeylerden bahsedeceğiz. Tablodaki saatlerin ingilizce ‘de nasıl söylendiğine bakalım.

    07:00

    It’s seven o’clock.

    It’s seven am.

    07:05

    It’s five past seven.

    07:10

    It’s ten past seven.

    07:15

    It’s quarter past seven.

    07:30

    It’s half past seven.

    07:45

    It’s a quarter to eight.

    07:50

    It’s ten to eight.

    12:00

    It’s twelve o’clock.

    It’s noon.

    It’s midnight.

    20:00

    It’s eight o’clock.

    It’s nine pm.

    On weekdays, I get up at half past eight. I put on my clothes and have breakfast. I leave my house at ten to nine. I walk to my school. School starts at a quarter past nine. I have my lunch at noon. I go home at half past two. I finish my homework at half past three and go out to the park. I play with my friends in the park every day for two hours. I get home at quarter to six. We have dinner at six o’clock. Then I spend time with my family and go to bed at half past eleven.

    Every morning I…

    get up, put on my clothes, take a shower, have breakfast, brush my teeth and leave for school.

    Every afternoon I…

    go home, finish my homework, go out to the park, play with my friends and get home.

    Every evening I….

    have dinner, spend time with my family, read a book, watch TV, talk to my family, chat with my family, go to bed and sleep.

    I leave my house at ten to nine everyday. What time do you leave your house? Do you leave your house early or late?

    What time do you have your dinner? Do you have your dinner with your friends or your family?

    What do you do after dinner? Do you go out or stay home?

    Gündelik hayatta yaptığımız işleri bu şekilde anlatırız. Özneden hemen sonra fiili kullanırız. Soru sormak istediğimizde de özneden önce “do” sözcüğünü kullanırız.

    Ido my homework.

    Doyoudo your homework before dinner?

    What time doyoudo your homework?

    Şu ana kadar hep birinci ve ikinci tekil şahsı (ben, sen) özne yaptık. Önceki konularda öğrendiğimiz gibi, burada da eğer üçüncü tekil şahıs özne olacaksa, fiilin sonuna “-s” ekleriz. Soru cümlesi ise de, “do” yerine “does” kullanırız.

    My friend, Claire gets up at six o’clock. Her school starts at half past seven. She goes to school by bus. After school, she goes home at twenty minutes past three. She has dinner at a quarter past seven.

    -Does she have lunch at school?

    -Yes, she does. She has lunch at school at half past twelve.

    Olumsuz cümleler kurmak için, fiilden önce “don’t” kullanırız. Yine, üçüncü tekil şahıslarda “don’t” yerinde “doesn’t” kullanırız.

    Eğer olumsuzluk belirtmek için”doesn’t” kullanmışsak, fiile tekrar “-s” eklenmez.

    I don’tgo to school in the afternoon.

    We don’tplay basketball everyday.

    They don’t have lunch at 3 o’clock.

    You don’t get up at half past five.

    He doesn’tplay football with us after school.

    She doesn’tgo to school on foot. She takes a bus.

    Don’t you have lunch at ten past twelve?

    Doesn’t he go to the cinema every week?

    My family and I live in a small house in İstanbul. We get up at seven every day and have breakfast together at half past seven. My father goes to work at ten to eight. My sister leaves the house with him. I stay at home until a quarter past eight. Then I go to school.

    Unit 5 - School

    My father is a scientist. My mother is an astronaut. Their jobs are very hard.

    -What does a photographer do?

    -A photographer takes photographs.

    -Where does a scientist work?

    -A scientist works in a lab.

    -Who works in a kitchen?

    -A cook works in a kitchen.

    -Do musicians wear uniforms?

    -No they don’t.

    -What do actors and actresses do? Do they work in a farm?

    -No, they don’t work in a farm. They act in movies. They usually wear costumes.

    -Where do nurses work?

    -They work in hospitals.

    -Do you know a nurse?

    -Yes, My friend’s mother is a nurse.

    -What does a policeman do before he goes to work?

    -He wears his uniform.

    -When does a farmer work?

    -A farmer works from the morning to the evening. Farmers don’t work at night.

    -How long does a farmer work?

    -I don’t know.

    İngilizce konuşurken yaptığımız işleri ne kadar sıklıkta yaptığımızı söylemek için sıklık ifade eden keliemeler kullanırız. En çok kullanılanlar “always, usually, often, sometimes, never” ifadeleridir.

    ok

    always

    her zaman

    usually

    çoğu zaman

    sometimes

    bazen

    never

    asla

    I always brush my teeth after meals.

    He usually plays football after school.

    She sometimes visits her grandmother.

    They never go for a drive after dinner.

    Biraz da basit konuşma diyaloglarını hatırlayalım:

    -What’s your name?

    -It is George Obama.

    -What is your job?

    -I am a politician.

    -Where are you from?

    -I am from America.

    -What’s your nationality?

    -I am American.

    -Where do you work?

    -I have got an office in Washington. I work in my office.

    -Can you speak foreign languages?

    -Yes, I can. I can speak Spanish and French.

    -Do you have a family?

    -Yes, I have a wife and two kids.

    -What do you do in your free time?

    -I like painting in my free time.

    Unit 6 - Weather Conditions

    There are four seasons in a year; summer, spring, fall(autumn) and winter.

    Hava durumu / Weather

    sunny

    cloudy

    rainy

    foggy

    hot windy

    stormy

    snowy

    cold

    wet

    dry

    cool

    warm

    In summer:

    It is sunny.

    It is cloudy.

    It is hot.

    It is dry.

    In spring:

    It is windy.

    It is rainy.

    It is sunny.

    It is cloudy.

    It is foggy.

    It is warm.

    It is wet.

    In winter:

    It is windy.

    It is rainy.

    It is snowy.

    It is cloudy.

    It is cold.

    It is wet.

    In autumn

    It is windy.

    It is rainy.

    It is cloudy.

    It is foggy.

    It is cool.

    It is wet.

    Ocak

    January

    Şubat February

    Mart March

    Nisan April

    Mayıs May

    Haziran June

    Temmuz July

    Ağustos August

    Eylül September

    Ekim October

    Kasım November

    Aralık December

    Türrkçe’de sıra sayıların sonlarına -inci, -ıncı… ekleriz. İngilizce sıra sayılarda ise, sonlarına -th eklenir. Sonları 1, 2, 3 ile bitiyorsa farklıdır. mesela 21st, 22nd, 23rd. Sadece 11,12 ve 13 sayıları bu kurala uymaz.

    1st first 11th eleventh 21st twenty first

    2nd second 12th twelfth 22nd twenty second

    3rd third 13th thirteenth 23rd twenty third

    4th fourth 14th fourteenth 24th twenty fourth

    5th fifth 15th fifteenth 25th twenty fifth

    6th sixth 16th sixteenth 66th sixty sixth

    7th seventh 17th seventeenth 89th seventy eighth

    8th eighth 18th eighteenth 78th eighty ninth

    9th ninth 19th nineteenth 55th fifty fifth

    10th tenth 20th twentieth 39th thirty nineth

    Ayın günü söylenirken, sıra sayıları kullanılır. (First, Second gibi)

    November 22 the twenty second of November

    August 18 the eighteenth of August

    January 6 the sixth of January

    February 23 the twenty third of February

    Weather forecast:

    It is sunny and dry today.

    The weather is rainy and foggy today.

    It is cold today.

    It is rainy tonight.

    In the middle Anatolia Region, the climate is hot and dry in summers and very cold in winters.

    People produce wheat and apples in this region.

    -What’s the weather like in Hakkari in winter?

    -It is very cold and snowy in Hakkari in winter.

    -What about in summer?

    -It is warm and sunny in Hakkari in summer.

    -What’s the weather like in Britain?

    -It is always rainy and cool.

    My city’s name is İstanbul. It is a very big and crowded city. İstanbul is hot and dry in summers but cold and rainy in winters. Sometimes it snows in İstanbul too.

    Unit 7 - Hygiene

    Germs live in dirty places. Germs make you sick. You can’t see them with bare eyes but you can see them on a microscope.

    Wash your hands carefully before meals.

    Brush your teeth after meals.

    Comb your hair everyday.

    Take showers frequently

    Bu gibi cümlelerde, özne bulunmadığı halde ikinci tekil şahsa söylendiğini anlayabiliyoruz. Bu kullanım ile tavsiye veya emir verebiliyoruz. Diğer tavsiye yöntemleri de şöyledir:

    -I am bored.

    -Why don’t you read a book?

    -I am hungry.

    -Why don’t you make a sandwich

    -I don’t feel very good.

    -Why don’t you go to a doctor?

    Bu sorularda gördüğümüz “why don’t you….” öbeğini soruya cevap almak için değil, tavsiye vermek için kullanırız.

    En sık kullanılan tavsiye verme yöntemi, “should” ile “shouldn’t” kelimeleri iledir.

    I have got a headache.

    You should take an asprin.

    I have got a backache.

    You should lie down. You shouldn’t lift heavy things.

    I have got a stomachache.

    You should go to a doctor.

    I have got a toothache.

    You should go to a dentist.

    I have got a sore throat.

    You shouldn’t shout.

    I have got a cough.

    You should take cough medicine.

    I have got a cold.

    You should wear thick clothes.

    I have got flu.

    You should stay in bed and rest.

    Bu kelimeler cümleye “yapmalısın” veya “yapmamalısın” şeklinde tavsiye manası katıyor.

    You should brush your teeth every day.

    You should eat a lot of vegetables.

    It is rainy today. We should take an umbrella.

    Ahmet and Ali are very tired. They should rest.

    I should study hard.

    İngilizce konuşurken birisine birşey yapmamasını tavsiye etmek için “shouldn’t” kullanırız. “shouldn’t”, “should not” kelimelerinin kısaltılmış halidir. Her iki şekilde de kullanılabilir.

    You should not talk in the classroom.

    We shouldn’t drop litter on the street.

    We shouldn’t take any medicine without seeing a doctor.

    It is rainy today. We should not go out without our raincoats.

    -You look angry. What’s the matter?

    -I want to go to a movie but I can’t go to the cinema. I have homework.

    -You should do your homework. Why don’t you get a video later?

    -You’re right.

    Unit 8 - Parties

    LET’S PARTY!

    IT’S PARTY TIME!

    Bu dersimizde arkadaşlarımız için parti düzenleyeceğiz ve onları partimize davet edeceğiz.

    “Would you like to…” öbeğini teklif veya davet yapmak için kullanırız.

    -Would you like to have some chocalate?

    -Sure, that would be great!

    -Would you like to come to my house after school? We can play together.

    -Of course.

    -Would you like to come to Kemal’s birthday party?

    -Sure. When is it?

    -It is on the twentieth of June.

    -Would you like to come to my party on Saturday?

    -Oh, I can’t come on Saturday.

    -Why not?

    -I should go to the dentist on Saturday.

    -That’s very sad.

    -Thanks for inviting me anyway.

    -Would you like to go to the football match tonight?

    -Oh, I’m afraid I can’t.

    -Why not?

    -I have a maths exam tomorrow.

    -Oh, that’s sad.

    -How about the basketball match this weekend?

    -Of course. I love basketball.

    -Great!

    -Why don’t we throw a goodbye party for Donald. He is moving to another city.

    -That’s a great idea! Where should we have the party?

    -How about in the park? We can make a garden party in the park.

    -Of course. We should invite all the kids at school.

    -Oh no, it shouldn’t be crowded. Crowded parties are not fun.

    -We can invite our class only.

    -That’s a good idea. When should we have the party?

    -We should have the party on Thursday after school.

    -That’s not a good idea. We have an English exam on Friday.

    -Why don’t we have the party on Saturday?

    -We can have it on Saturday. What should we do in the party?

    -Why don’t we ask our parents for help? They can prepare food for us.

    -Ok. Let’s invite all the kids in our class to Donald’s goodbye party on Saturday.

    We should prepare invitations.

    We should invite everyone.

    We shouldn’t tell Donald. It’s a surprise.

    We should ask for our parents’s help.

    We should prepare some decorations, games and activities.

    We should set tables.

    Sue is preparing the invitations.

    Jack is sending the invitations.

    George is doing the decorations.

    Susan is choosing the games and activities.

    The rest is setting the tables.

    The parents are helping.

    İşte ingilizce olarak hazırlanmış bir parti davetiyesi:

    Join us in Donald’s goodbye party.

    It’s a surprise party, don’t tell Donald!!

    It’s in the park this Saturday at 3 o’clock.

    You can bring a friend.

    Unit 9 - Living Beings

    Etrafımızda hangi hayvanlar var? Bunları ingilizce olarak sayabilir misiniz?

    Hayvanlar / Animals

    cat

    dog

    bird

    fly

    bat

    bear

    butterfly

    rabbit

    ant

    bee

    spider

    sheep

    pig

    cow

    snake

    fish

    dolphin

    giraffe

    deer

    fox

    pigeon

    goat

    hamster

    canary

    horse

    monkey

    donkey

    whale

    lion

    turtle

    mouse

    rat

    hawk

    owl

    lobster

    frog

    tiger

    crow

    wolf

    elephant

    squirrel

    duck

    goose

    parrot

    cattle

    I don’t like tiny animals. I only like big animals. I like elephants, gorillas and lions. I don’t like cats or dogs.

    I haven’t got an animal. I’d like to have a pet lion!

    There are many types of animals in the farm. Sheep, cows, ducks and geese are farm animals. We can see wild animals in an African Safari. Or we can visit them at the zoo. There are many monkeys in the zoo. There are tigers and zebras too.

    My favourite animal is a wolf. Wolves are strong and they can run fast too. Wolves have big, pointy ears and sharp teeth. They have a very beautiful fur. Their eyes are very sharp and very beautiful too. Wolves usually live in the forests or mountains. They don’t live near people.

    -What’s a hawk like?

    -It’s a big, strong bird. It can fly very high and very fast. It hunts and eats small animals.

    -Where does a hawk live?

    -It lives in forests and mountains.

    -What does a hawk like?

    -It likes rats, rabbits, mice and squirrels.

    -What does a hawk dislike?

    -It dislikes big wild animals. It dislikes foxes, wolves and dogs.

    -Guess the animal I’m thinking. It is big. It has black and white stripes.

    -Is it a tiger?

    -No, It isn’t.

    -Can it run fast?

    -Yes it can run fast.

    -What does it eat? Does it eat other animals?

    -No, it only eats grass.

    -What does it look like? Does it look like a sheep?

    -No, It looks like a donkey or a horse. And it lives in African plains.

    -Is it a zebra?

    -Yes it is. Congratulations. You win the game.

    Unit 10 - Games and Sports

    Bu dersimizde spor oyunlarından bahsedeceğiz.

    Catch is a very popular game in this area. It is my favourite game. We play it outside with my friends all the time. We need 4 friends to play this game. You can play it with more people too. It is a very exciting game. You need a ball to play it. One person takes the ball and throws it in the air and yells someone’s name at the same time. That person should catch the ball before the ball falls on the ground. Then he/she throws the ball and yells someone else’s name.If he/she can’t catch it, he/she goes out of the game.

    My favourite game is air hockey. You need a table and two paddles. There is a special hockey ball on the table. It is called a puck” and you hit it with your paddles. You need to score goals to your opponent. You need two people to play this game.

    My favourite sport is go-kart racing. You need special go-kart vehicles and a track. The race starts with a green light.

    You need 2-8 people for this race.

    You need a track and a go-kart.

    You need safety equipment.

    You must stay on the track.

    You must wear a helmet

    You mustn’t hit anyone.

    You mustn’t start before the green light.

    İngilizce ‘de “Must” ve “mustn’t” kullanarak kuralları anlatabiliriz. “Must” yapmak zorunda olduğumuz, “mustn’t” ise yapmamak zorunda olduğumuz şeyleri anlatabiliriz.

    Unit 11 - Safety

    “Must” ve “mustn’t” ingilizce ‘de kuralları ve zorunlulukları anlatmak için kullanılır. “Must” yapmak zorunda olduğumuz, “mustn’t” ise yapmamak zorunda olduğumuz şeyleri anlatabiliriz. Gereklilik ve zorunluluk anlatırlar.

    Traffic rules are very important. We must obey the traffic rules. We must pay attention on the road.

    -There is an accident on the road. What shall we do?

    -We must call the police.

    -A house is on fire. What shall we do?

    -We must call the fire department.

    -A child is injured in the park.What shall we do?

    -Why don’t we help him?

    You mustn’t feed the animals in the zoo.

    You mustn’t step on the grass in the park.

    You mustn’t make noise in the hospital.

    You mustn’t smoke.

    You mustn’t enter the shop with an ice cream.

    Unit 12 - Different Places

    The children are going to go on a school trip tomorrow.

    They are going to go to the lake.

    They are going to have a picnic by the lake.

    They are going to meet at 8 o’clock.

    They aren’t going to meet at 9 o’clock.

    Mr. Harris is going to drive them to there by school bus.

    They aren’t going to buy food there.

    They are going to take food and drinks from home.

    They are going to buy ice cream.

    “(be) going to” ifadesi ile gelecek zamandan bahsederiz. Yani ingilizce dilbilgisindeki -be going to gelecek zamanı ile planlarımızı ve verdiğimiz kararlarımızı anlatırız. “going to” kullanmadan önce, “be” yerine “am, is, are” dan uygun olanını seçmeliyiz.

    Iam going toplay football with my friends this evening.

    She is going to write a report next week.

    They are going to go to the cinema tomorrow.

    Soru yapmak için “am, is, are” başa alınabilir. Ayrıca negatif yapmak için de “am not, isn’t, aren’t” kullanılabilir.

    Iamnotgoing togo to the cinema with them. I have got some homework.

    Heisn’tgoing tovisit the zoo this week.

    You aren’t going to watch tv tonight.

    AmIgoing tosee her tonight?

    Is that man going to come with us?

    Are the children going to go on a holiday?

    En sık kullanılan gelecek zaman ifadesi “will” dir. Cümlede özneden hemen sonra “will” sözcüğünü kullanırsak, gelecek zaman manası katmış oluruz. “Will”den hemen sonra yüklem gelir. Ayrıca will kısaltılarak “‘ll” şeklinde de kullanılabilir.

    Iwillgo home at 6:30 this evening.

    Hewillwatch tv after he finishes his homework.

    Theywillarrive tonight.

    Soru cümlesi kurmak için, will başa alınır.

    -Where willyougo for holiday this summer?

    -Iwillgo to Bolu.

    -When areyougoing toleave?

    -I am going to leave next week.

    -What do you like about Bolu?

    -There are a lot of trees in Bolu. I love trees.

    -How will you travel to Bolu?

    -I will ride my motorcycle to Bolu.

    -Will you go alone?

    -No, I’ll go with a friend.

    -When will you meet him?

    -We’ll meet after school.

    -What will you do in Bolu?

    -I will do hiking in mountains.

    -What will you take with you?

    -I’ll take a big bag with me.

    -How long will you stay there?

    -We will stay there for a week.

    -Let’s go sightseeing this weekend.

    -That’s a great idea. Where will we go?

    -We can go to Ayasofya.

    -Why do you want to go to Ayasofya?

    -I want to go because it is a very beautiful monument.

    -Ayasofya is in Eminönü, isn’t it?

    -Yes, it is.

    You are a doctor, aren’t you?

    You don’t like mushrooms, do you?

    Cümlelerin sonuna virgül ile eklenen bu sorular, cümlede anlatılan ifadeyi pekiştirmek amacı ile sorulur. Bunlar, Türkçe’de cümlenin sonuna eklediğimiz “değil mi” sorusuna benzerdir.

    Bu sorular,

    Cümlenin öznesi ve yardımcı fiili olmak üzere iki kelime ile kurulurlar.

    Olumlu cümleler için olumsuz , olumsuz cümleler için ise olumlu kurulurlar.

    Ana cümleden virgül ile ayrılırlar ve sonlarına soru işareti konur.

    Şimdi örnekler ile pekiştirelim.

    He loves rock music, doesn’t he?

    They are on holiday, aren’t they?

    You can’t swim, can you?

    There are two cars, aren’t there?

    There is a meeting tonight, isn’t there?

    I want to go to the seaside for my holiday. I want to swim in the morning. Then I want to play on the beach. I don’t want to go on a camping holiday. I don’t like sleeping in a tent.

    I will play beach football.

    I will play beach volleyball.

    I will build sand castles.

    I will sail in a boat.

    I will go fishing.

    Unit 13 Holidays

    Bu ünitede, şu ana kadar öğrendiğimiz farklı konuları hatırlayacağız. İngilizce dilbilgisinde kullanılan be going to gelecek zaman, will gelecek zaman ve be fiil-ing şimdiki zaman kullanımlarını hatırlayalım.

    -Which holiday is your favourite?

    -My favourite holiday is the twenty-third of April because it is for kids. I am going to take part in the celebrations this year. We are going to make a parade. I am going to play in the band.

    “Going to” öbeği ile gelecek zamandan bahsederiz.

    -Will you wear a costume for the parade?

    -Yes, I will wear a big yellow hat, white trousers and a green jacket. My friends will wear similar costumes too.

    “will” de gelecek zamandan bahsetmenin farklı bir yoludur.

    -What time will the parade start?

    -It will start at half past eight.

    -When will your band play?

    -We will play between nine o’clock and a quarter to ten.

    -Are you excited?

    -Of course!

    I am sitting in the classroom now. The teacher is writing a story on the board. A student is drawing a picture. One of my friends is erasing his notebook. Ali is solving the exercises in his book.

    “Am, is, are” dan sonra fiile “-ing” eki ekleyerek, şimdiki zamanı belirtmiş oluyoruz.

    The nineteenth of May is Youth and Sports Holiday. I like it very much. My brother will take part in celebrations of the holiday. There is no school on that day. We will watch the parade on TV. Then, in the afternoon we are going to play football with my friends. I like the parades very much. I like the colourful decorations for the holiday too. The shops will be closed on the nineteenth of May, I dislike that because I like shopping.

    Unit 14 - Mathematical Problems

    Bu ünitede matematiksel işlemleri İngilizce söylemeyi öğreneceğiz.

    Toplama işlemini şöyle söyleriz:

    12 + 8 = 20

    If you add twelve to eight, you get twenty.

    If you add fifteen to fourteen, you get twenty-nine.

    If you add ten to eleven, you get twenty-one.

    Çıkarma işlemini şöyle söyleriz:

    5 – 2 = 3

    If you substract two from five, you get three

    Buraya dikkat çekmemiz gerekiyor: önce çıkanı (yani ikinci sayıyı) söylemeliyiz.

    16 – 7 = 9

    If you substract seven from sixteen, you get nine.

    If you substract eighty-seven from ninety-six, you get nine.

    Bu ifadeyi rakam olarak yazarken de yerlerini değiştirdiğimizi hatırlamalıyız. (96 – 87 = 9)

    If you substract fifty from sixty-one, you get eleven.

    If you substract thirty-two from sixty-four, you get thirty-two.

    Şimdi de çarpma işlemini söylemeyi öğrenelim:

    6 x 7 = 42

    If you multiply six by seven, you get fourty-two.

    If you multiply nine by eleven, you get ninety-nine.

    Bölme işlemini de şöyle söyleriz:

    100 : 2 = 50

    If you divide a hundred by two, you get fifty.

    If you divide fourty-eight by four, you get twelve.

    If you divide ninety-six by six, you get sixteen.

    100’den büyük sayıları söylerken, önce yüzler basamağını söyleriz, sonra “and” der ve kalan iki basamağı okuruz.

    232 two hundred and thirty-two

    707 seven hundred and seven

    198 one hundred and ninety-eight

    I go to school by bus in the mornings and I come home with another bus in the afternoon. I have got 13,60 liras on my akbil. It costs 1,5 liras to take a bus. I am at home now. How many more days can I go to school with my akbil? How much will be left in my akbil in the end? And will I be at home or at school in the end?

    I pay 1,5 liras to go to school and 1,5 liras to go home.

    If you add one point five to one point five, you get three.

    I pay 3 liras in one day.

    If you divide thirteen point sixty to three, you get four.

    I can go to school and come home for four days.

    If you multiply four to three, you get twelve.

    If you substract twelve from thirteen point sixty, you get one point sixty.

    Then, there will be 1,6 liras left. I can go to school one more time with that.

    If you substract one point five from one point six, you get zero point ten.

    I can go to school and come home for four days. Then I can go to school again but can’t come back home because there will be zero point ten liras in my akbil.

    Bu problemde yaptığımı işlemleri rakamlar ile yazmaya çalışın.

    1,5 + 1,5 = 3

    13,60 / 3 = 4

    4 x 3 = 12

    13,60 – 12 = 1,60

    1,60 – 1,50 = 0,10

    Am I good at Maths? I am not very good at maths but I like solving problems.

    ( 10 + 24 + 36 ) : 2 = 35

    Let’s write a problem for this equation.

    Our class is going to a trip. We are going to a camp. Ali, Selim and Ayça will bring apples for everyone. Ali brings ten apples. Selim brings twenty-four apples and Ayça brings thirty-six apples. In the end, we share the apples and everyone takes 2 apples. How many students are there in this trip?

    Unit 15 - Laboratory Work

    Bu ünitede de Bilim ve Teknoloji derslerinde karşılaştığımız ingilizce tabirlerden bahsedeceğiz.

    madde matter

    katı solid

    sıvı liquid

    gaz gas

    There are three states for matters, they are “solid state, liquid state and gas state”

    Solids have shapes. We can hold solids in out hands.

    Liquids and gases don’t have certain shapes. They take the shape of their containers.

    For example, if you put water in a glass, the water takes the shape of the glass.

    This desk is solid. A pencil is solid. A pen is solid too. But the ink in your pen is not solid. It is in liquid state.

    An orange is solid but orange juice is liquid.

    Can we see gases? Usually, they are invisible but sometimes we can see them. We can see smoke, can’t we? We can see the exhaust fumes of a truck too.

    If you put a glass of water in the refrigerator, it will freeze.

    If you heat ice, it melts.

    If you heat water too much, it boils.

    Burada kullandığımız “if” sözcüğü, “eğer” manasına gelir.

    -What happenes if you heat water to fifty-five degrees? Does it boil? Or does it freeze?

    -No, It doesn’t boil or freeze.

    -What happenes if you heat water to 100 degrees?

    -It starts to boil.

    -What happens if you leave chocolate under the sun?

    -It melts.

    Unit 16 - Different Life Styles

    -Hello Jin.

    -Hi.

    -Where are you from, Jin?

    -I am from Korea.

    -Where is Korea?

    -It is in the far east of Asia.

    -Is it very hot in Korea?

    -No, Not really.

    -What’s the climate like in Korea?

    -It is very similar to Türkiye. We have four seasons in Korea too but we have a lot of rainy days.

    -What sort of clothes do you wear in Korea?

    -People in villages wear traditional long and wide dresses. They have beautiful colours and shapes on their clothes too.

    -What sort of food do you eat?

    -We love rice. We use rice a lot. We like seafood too. We prepare our meals with different spices and sauces.

    -Oh that’s very good. Nice to meet you Jin.

    -Nice to meet you too.

    Bedouins usually use camels for transport. Camels are very strong animals. They can carry a lot of things. They are not very fast, but they can walk very long distances. They don’t need to drink a lot of water. That’s why camels are perfect for transportation in deserts.

    -Is it hard to make a Bedouin tent?

    -No it isn’t. We can put up a tent in a few minutes.

    -What is the tent for?

    -The tent provides shadow.

    -Why are your clothes long and wide? Don’t you get hot in them? Why don’t you wear short sleeved shirts?

    -These clothes protect us from the sun. And they are good for dry weather. They stop our tears from vaporising. We shouldn’t loose much water in the desert.

    -Oh, I see.

    Hello, I am Tufan. I am from Türkiye. I want to invite you to my country. It is very beautiful. Türkiye has got many historical sights and monuments. There are very good beaches too. The cities in Türkiye are very modern. Türkiye is a very good country for a summer holiday. Turkish food is very tasty too. You should try different kebabs! Why don’t you come to Türkiye this year?

  • Unit One

    Today is Saturday.

    Shewas in Ankara on Wednesday

    Hewas in Tokyo on Friday

    My parentswere in Sakarya on Tuesday.

    Wewere in Africa on Monday.

    It is 12 o’clock.

    The children were at home this morning.

    The dogs were in the garden at 10 o’clock.

    Today is Saturday. Yesterday was Friday.

    Thursday was two days ago.

    Wednesday was three days ago.

    There was a very good show on TV last night.

    We went to Anıtkabir last month.

    The teacher was angry last week.

    There was an apple on the table last night.

    My friends were here two minutes ago.

    Geçmiş zamanı anlatmak için, isim cümlelerinde “was” ve “were” yardımcı fiillerini kullanırız.

    İngilizce dilbilgisindeki kullanımları aynı “am, is, are” gibidir. “am, is, are” ile geniş zamanı ifade ediyorduk.

    “was” tekil şahıslar için, yani “am, is” yerine;

    “were” de çoğul şahıslar için, yani “are” yerine kullanılır.

    I

    am

    at home today.

    I

    was

    at home yesterday.

    He

    She

    It

    is

    a teacher.

    He

    She

    It

    was

    a teacher.

    We

    You

    They

    are

    students in middle school.

    We

    You

    They

    were

    students in middle school last year.

    Soru cümlesi kurmak için de, yine daha önceden öğrendiğimiz gibi, yardımcı fiili başa almalıyız.

    WasGeorge at school on Tuesday?

    Wereyou in Aylin’s house yesterday?

    What was your friend’s name?

    Who was your teacher?

    Where were they this morning?

    Were the trees green last month?

    Why were you late?

    Bu tense ile en sık kullanılan zaman belirteçleri; “yesterday”, “last (week, month)”, “(two days, an hour, three monts) ago”

    yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, last month, last week, 2 years ago, six months ago

    Olumsuz cümleler de önceki konularda gördüğümüz şekilde yapılıyor. “Was” yerine “wasn’t”; “were” yerine de “weren’t” kullanırız.

    They weren’t in the meeting.

    I wasn’t in the club last night.

    Ali and Fatma weren’t friends last year, but now they are very close.

    Who wasn’t here last night?

    İsimler “sayılabilir” ve “sayılamaz” olarak gruplanır. “Sayılabilir” isimlere örnekler:

    student students computer computers

    car cars balloon balloons

    apple apples book books

    Bazı isimler de “sayılamaz” olarak gruplandırılmıştır. Bunlar genellikle sıvı ve gaz maddeler, çok küçük tanecikler gibi gerçekten de saymanın mümkün olmadığı şeylerdir. Bu isimler, çoğul yapılamazlar, sayılar ile nitelenemezler. “Sayılamaz” isimlere örnekler:

    coffee tea food help

    cheese salt music homework

    sugar money traffic water

    Sayılamaz isimler, tekil kullanılırlar. Özne olurlarsa, yardımcı fiil olarak “is” kullanmalıyız.

    Sayılabilir isimlerin miktarını sormak için “how many”

    Sayılamaz isimlerin miktarını sormak için ise “how much” soru öbeklerini kullanmalıyız. Bu basit kurallara dikkat etmeliyiz.

    Şimdi bu sorulara cevap vermeyi öğrenelim.

    A lot of tabirini, “çok” anlamında kullanırız. Hem “sayılabilir” hem de “sayılamaz” isimler için kullanılabilir.

    There are a lot of cars on the road.

    Students have got a lot of books.

    I have got a lot of homework.

    I want a lot of money.

    -How many balloons are there in the toy store?

    -There are a lot of balloons in the toy store.

    -How many apples are there in the refrigerator?

    -There are a lot of apples in the refrigerator.

    -How many students are there in the classroom?

    -There are a lot of students in the classroom.

    -How much food have you got?

    -I have got a lot of food.

    -How much sugar is there in the jar?

    -There is a lot of sugar in the jar.

    -How much water have you got in your bottle?

    -I have got a lot of water in my bottle.

    -How much salt is there in the salad?

    -There is a lot of salt in the salad.

    “a few”, “a little” sözcükleri “az” manasına gelir. “A few” sayılabilir isimler için kullanılır, “a little” da sayılamaz isimler için kullanılır.

    I have got a few books on my desk.

    She has got a few friends.

    There are a few apples in the bag.

    I have got a little money.

    There is a little water in the glass.

    There is a little patrol in the car.

    -How many computers are there in your school?

    -There are a few computers in my school.

    -How many dogs are there in the garden?

    -There are a few dogs in the garden.

    -How many houses are there in the your town?

    -There are a few houses in my town.

    -How much milk is there in the bottle?

    -There is a little milk in the bottle.

    -How much apple juice have you got in your glass?

    -I have got a little apple juice in my glass.

    -How much chocolate is there in the package?

    -There is a little chocolate in the package.

    “Some” kelimesini “bazı, bir miktar” gibi manalarda kullanırız. Hem sayılabilir, hem de sayılamaz isimler için kullanılabilir. Çokluk belirttiği için, sayılabilir isimler ile kullanılırken, ismi çoğul yapmayı unutmayalım. Sayılamaz isimler, zaten çoğul yapılamazlar.

    My brother has got some toys.

    Some apples are green.

    Some trees are very short.

    There is some money in my wallet.

    I have got some homework.

    Some information is necessary for me.

    “any” kelimesi de hem sayılabilir, hem de sayılamaz isimler için kullanılabilir. Ancak “any” sözcüğünü, soru cümlelerinde veya “not any” şeklinde negatif cümlelerde kullanırız. Cümleye “hiç” manası katar. Burada da sayılabilir isimler ile kullanılırken ismi çoğul yapmayı unutmayalım.

    He doesn’t play any musical instruments.

    We haven’t got any books in the drawer.

    Are there any oranges in the refrigerator?

    Are there any birds in the cage?

    I haven’t got any money.

    There isn’t any fruit in the box.

    Is there any coffee left in the jar?

    You are a doctor, aren’t you?

    You don’t like classical music, do you?

    Cümlelerin sonuna virgül ile eklenen bu sorular, cümlede anlatılan ifadeyi pekiştirmek amacı ile sorulur. Bunlar, Türkçe’de cümlenin sonuna eklediğimiz “değil mi” sorusuna benzerdir.

    Bu sorular,

    Cümlenin öznesi ve yardımcı fiili olmak üzere iki kelime ile kurulurlar.

    Pozitif cümleler negatife, negatif cümleler de pozitife çevrilirler.

    Ana cümleden virgül ile ayrılırlar ve sonlarına soru işareti konur.

    Şimdi örnekler ile pekiştirelim.

    Mice can’t swim, can they?

    That boy can run very fast, can’t he?

    They are on holiday, aren’t they?

    You aren’t late for school, are you?

    You love ice cream, don’t you?

    He always listens to rock music, doesn’t he?

    There are two cars, aren’t there?

    There isn’t a meeting tonight, is there?

    Your sister has got a pet, hasn’t she?

    The dog is chasing the cat, isn’t it?

    The doctor is talking to the nurse, isn’t he?

    The teacher won’t give you a lot of homework, will she?

    It is going to rain this weekend, isn’t it?

    You aren’t going to go on a vacation, are you?

    Ahmet was ill, wasn’t he?

    It wasn’t snowy yesterday, was it?

    The cars were in the garage, weren’t they?

    They weren’t at school two days ago, were they?

    Unit Two

    Geçmiş zamanı ifade etmek için, fiil cümlelerinde yüklemi past hale çevirmek gerekir. Past hali v2 olarak ifade ediyoruz. Çoğu fiil, sonuna “-ed” takısı eklenerek past hale çevrilebilir. Bunlara ingilizce dilbilgisinde “düzenli fiiller” yani “regular verbs” deriz.

    He worked for that company for fourteen years.

    We stayed at home last night.

    The car crashed into a dog.

    The game ended at half past six yesterday.

    Bazı fiiller ise “irregular” yani düzensizdir. Düzensiz fiillerin past halleri ile ilgili herhangi bir kural yoktur. Aşağıda, tabloda en sık kullanılan bazı düzensiz filleri listeledik. Bunları örnekler ile kullanarak pekiştirmeliyiz. Bir süre sonra, size de çok kolay gelmeye başlayacaklarına eminim.

    v1

    v2

    v1

    v2

    Come

    build

    cut

    fall

    go

    see

    leave

    write

    sell

    sleep

    take

    understand

    win

    wear

    say

    teach

    read

    Came

    built

    cut

    fell

    went

    saw

    left

    wrote

    sold

    slept

    took

    understood

    won

    wore

    said

    taught

    read

    Find

    catch

    do

    drive

    have

    make

    meet

    run

    sit

    speak

    tell

    buy

    stand

    eat

    give

    hear

    know

    think

    Found

    caught

    did

    drove

    had

    made

    met

    ran

    sat

    spoke

    told

    bought

    stood

    ate

    gave

    heard

    knew

    thought

    My uncle won the lottery last year.

    I bought some ice cream for my little brother.

    I went to a movie yesterday.

    The guy took some money, and ran away.

    I met a famous actor two weeks ago.

    I did all my homework before dinner so now, I’m watching tv.

    Olumsuz hal ve soru hali için, “do” yardımcı fiilini past hali ile “did” olarak kullanacağız. “did”, bütün şahıslar için kullanılır. Yardımcı fiil kullanıldıktan sonra, yüklemin yalın halde kullanılması gerektiğini de unutmayalım. Yani, eğer cümleyi olumsuz veya soru cümlesi yapmak için “did” eklersek, yüklemi yine v1 olarak kullanmalıyız; varsa “-ed” takısını da çıkaracağız.

    Atakan didn’tstudy for the test.

    You didn’teat a lot of food tonight.

    They didn’ttalk to each other last week.

    He didn’t listen to the teacher.

    Did you see the game last night?

    Did everyone do their exercises?

    How did you go to school yesterday?

    What did you see on the table?

    -What did you do after school last night?

    -I rested for an hour. Then I played with my friends in the garden. At 6 o’clock, we had dinner. Then I did my homework. I went to bed at half past ten last night.

    -Did the man like his new house?

    -Yes, he did. veya Yes, he liked his new house.

    -Did the cat catch the mouse?

    -No it didn’t veya No, it didn’t catch the mouse.

    “anybody, anything, somebody, something, somewhere, anywhere”

    Bu sözcüklere belgesiz zamirler deriz. Bu ifadeler kesin, ayırt edici bilgi vermeden, tanıtmadan isimlere işaret ederler.

    The children always want something.

    I see something in the sky!

    Your teacher talks to somebody in the street everyday.

    There is somebody in the bathroom but there isn’t anybody in the living room.

    The box is empty. There isn’t anything in the box.

    The suitcase is heavy. There is something in the suitcase.

    -Do you have anything in your pocket?

    -Yes, I have a little, red ball in my pocket.

    -I can’t find my book anywhere. Did you see my book?

    -Yes I saw it somewhere but I can’t remember.

    -There are twenty students in this class now. There were twenty one students yesterday.

    -Somebody is absent.

    I don’t know anybody in this room.

    I haven’t got anything in my bag.

    The doctor can’t find his pen anywhere.

    Gördüğünüz gibi, “somebody, something, somewhere” ifadeleri olumlu cümlelerde kullanılırken,

    “anybody, anything, anywhere” ifadeleri sadece soru cümlelerinde ve olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır.

    Unit Three

    Bu ünitede kıyaslama yapmayı öğreneceğiz. Günlük ingilizce konuşmalarda farkında olmadan bir çok şeyi birbiriyle kıyaslarız. İki çeşit kıyaslama vardır. Birincisi, “comperative” dediğimiz yöntemdir. Bu yöntem ile, iki nesneden “daha üstün” olanını gösteririz.

    İkinci çeşit kıyaslama ise, bir grup içindeki “en üstün” olanı göstermek için kullanılır. Bu yönteme “superlative” denir.

    Comparatives kullanarak cümleye “daha” anlamı yükleyerek karşılaştırma yapabiliriz.

    Atakan is older than Aylin.

    My bag is heavier than yours.

    comperative

    superlative

    Çoğu kısa sıfata comperative yapmak için “-er”, superlative için “-est” ekleriz.

    Old

    fast

    tall

    small

    high

    hard

    great

    Older

    faster

    taller

    smaller

    higher

    harder

    greater

    Oldest

    fastest

    tallest

    smallest

    highest

    hardest

    greatest

    Bazı sıfatlarda ses uyumundan dolayı biraz farklı kullanımlar görülebilir.

    Safe

    nice

    large

    Safer

    nicer

    larger

    Safest

    nicest

    largest

    Busy

    pretty

    funny

    Busier

    prettier

    funnier

    Busiest

    prettiest

    funniest

    Big

    hot

    Bigger

    hotter

    Biggest

    hottest

    Uzun kelimelerin başına comperative için “more”,

    superlative için “most” eklenir.

    Important

    expensive

    difficult

    carefully

    more important

    more expensive

    more difficult

    more carefully

    most important

    most expensive

    most difficult

    most carefully

    Düzensiz bazı sıfat ve zarflar

    Good

    bad

    little

    much/many

    far

    Better

    worse

    less

    more

    farther

    (further)

    Best

    worst

    least

    most

    farthest

    (furthest)

    An eagle is bigger than a pigeon. An ostrich is the biggest bird of all.

    A cat is weak. A panther is strong. A lion is stronger than a panter. A lion is the strongest of all.

    Tokyo is the most crowded city in the world.

    Asia is the largest continent in the world.

    A BMW is more expensive than a Honda. A Ferrari is the most expensive of all.

    Ferraris are the most expensive cars of all.

    The Poles are the coldest places in the world.

    “Would like” öbeği ile tercih, istek bildiririz. Bu öbekten sonra isim gelebilir. Böylece özne bir şey istediğini bildirmiş olur.

    I would like some chocolate.

    Jane would like a new hat.

    The students would like a holiday.

    Bu öbekten sonra isim gelebildiği gibi, “to+fiil + isim” de gelebilir. Böylece özne bir şey yapmak istediğini bildirmiş olur.

    I would like to eat some chocolate.

    Jane would like to buy a new hat.

    The students would like to have a holiday.

    -What would your mother like on her birthday?

    -She would like to get a present on her birthday.

    -Would she like a new shirt?

    -Yes, she would like a new shirt.

    -What would George like to have for lunch?

    -She would like to have a sandwich for lunch.

    -What would you like to play today?

    -We would like to play football today.

    -Would you like to play basketball now?

    -No we wouldn’t. We would like to play football today.

    “would” kısaltılabilir, “‘d” olarak özneye birleştirilir. Ayrıca “wouldn’t” olarak olumsuz da yapılabilir.

    -I’d like to have a cup of coffee today.

    -Would you like any sugar in your coffee?

    -Yes, I’d like a little suger in it.

    -Would monkeys like fruit?

    -Yes, they’d like fruit.

    -Would lions like to eat fruit?

    -No, they wouldn’t like fruit.

    -Would a cat like to swim in the lake?

    -Of course it wouldn’t!

    “would like” öbeğinin en sık kullanıldığı durum, “would you like….” şeklindeki nazik sorulardır.

    -Would you like a cup of tea?

    -Sure, that would be great!

    -Would you like to drink a cup of tea?

    -No, thank you.

    Would like kullanımı ile, iki şey arasındaki seçimi belirtebiliriz. Bunun için seçenekler arasına “or” konur.

    -Would you like to go to a movie or watch TV?

    -I would like to watch TV.

    Would you like pizza or hamburger?

    Would the kids like to go to the park or the zoo?

    Unit Four

    Tufan is 16 years old. Emre is 16 too.

    Kevin is as old as Emre.

    İngilizce dilbilgisindeki “as…as” kalıbı araya bir sıfat konarak karşılaştırmada kullanılır ve mana olarak kıyaslanan iki şeyit eşit üstünlükte olduğu manasına gelir. Yani benzetme yapmış oluruz.

    My house is as big as your house.

    Bu yöntem ile mecazi benzetmeler yapılabilir.

    That girl is as clever as a fox

    The man is as brave as a lion.

    Süreyya Ayhan was as fast as the wind.

    Naim Süleymanoğlu was as strong as Hercules.

    “Not as…as” şeklindeki olumsuz kullanımda ise, öznenin nesneyle eşit üstünlükte olmadığı, yani nesnenin daha üstün olduğu anlamı çıkar.

    Sue is only 22 years old. Steve is 32 years old.

    Sue is not as old as Steve. Steve is older than Sue.

    This building has got 10 floors. That building has got 13 floors.

    This building isn’t as tall as that building.

    Other athletes weren’t as fast as Süreyya Ayhan

    The Byzantine army wasn’t as good as The Ottoman army in 1453.

    Africa isn’t as large as Asia.

    This pencil is the same as your pencil.

    My new bicycle is different from my old bike.

    a-b-c

    A is the same as C.

    B is different from A.

    B is different from C too.

    Bu yöntem ile kıyaslama, açıklama bile gerektirmeyecek kadar basit görünüyor..

    “the same” ile “as” arasına bir isim girebilir.

    My shirt is the same colour as yours.

    Ahmet’s father is the same age as mine.

    İyelik zamirleri yerini tuttuğu ismin aynı zamanda özneye ait olduğunu anlatır.

    Türkçe’de iyelik zamirleri ile iyelik sıfatları aynı kelimelerdir.

    Kişi Zamiri

    İyelik Sıfatı

    İyelik Zamiri

    I

    My

    Mine

    This is my pencil.

    This is mine.

    He

    She

    It

    His

    Her

    Its

    His

    Hers

    Its

    That is his car.

    That is her shirt.

    That is dog’s toy.

    That car is his.

    That shirt is hers.

    That toy is its (dog’s).

    We

    You

    They

    Our

    Your

    Their

    Ours

    Yours

    Theirs

    This is our house.

    It is your book.

    It is their radio.

    This house is ours.

    Its yours.

    It is theirs.

    These are my clothes.

    These are mine

    That is my book.

    That book is mine.

    I see four books on the table. Two of them are mine, one of them is yours and one of them is my friend’s.

    Fiilin anlamının, özneye geri döndüğü, özneyi etkilediği durumlarda reflexive pronoun kullanılır. Yani nesne olan kişi ile özne olan kişi aynı oluyor. Türkçe’de, bunu ifade etmek için “kendi” kelimesini kullanırız.

    Kişi Zamiri

    object pronoun

    Reflexive pronoun

    Look at the mirror:

    I

    You

    He

    She

    It

    Me

    You

    Him

    Her

    It

    Myself

    Yourself

    Himself

    Herself

    Itself

    I see myself.

    You see yourself.

    Ahmet sees himself.

    Sibel sees herself.

    The cat sees itself.

    We

    You

    They

    Us

    You

    Them

    Ourselves

    Yourselves

    Themselves

    We see ourselves.

    You see yourselves.

    They see themselves.

    Örneklerde ilginç bir noktayı işaretledik. İkinci şahsın tekil veya çoğul halleri arasında çoğu durumda kullanım farkı hiç olmazken, burada farka rastlıyoruz.

    The driver is talking to himself in the car.

    The lonely child is playing by himself.

    Take care of yourself.

    The new student introduced herself.

    Unit Five

    İngilizce konuşma dilinde çok yaygın olarak kullanılan “What’s the matter with …..” öbeği “onun nesi var?” anlamına gelir.

    Headache Stomachache Cold

    Backache Sore throat Flu

    Toothache Cough Broke (arm, leg)

    -What’s the matter with you?

    -This box is very heavy. I can’t carry it.

    -Why are you wearing a hat, what’s the matter with you?

    -I have got a cold.

    -Why are you sad?

    -I got a bad mark from English test.

    “What do you think of….” kalıbı ile birisinin “….. hakkında ne düşündüğünü” sorarız. Cevap da genelde “I think, it is……” diye başlar, ve en sona bir sıfat konur.

    -What do you think of this meal?

    -I think, it is very delicious.

    -What do you think of hunting?

    -I think, it is dangerous. I think, it is cruel to animals too.

    -What do yo think of this hotel?

    -I think, it is very modern.

    -What do you think of Ayasofya?

    -I think, it is breathtaking.

    Bu ifadeler, diğer modallara göre çok daha kuvvetlidir. Gereklilik ve zorunluluk anlatırlar.

    I have got a terrible tootache. I must go to a dentist.

    I have to call Aykut today. I have to ask him about the lesson.

    They must pass this test or they will not pass this lesson.

    “Have to, has to” ifadeleri, gereklilik ve zorunluluk anlatırlar. “Has to” sadece 3. tekil şahıs (o) için kullanılır. Diğer şahıslar için “have to” kullanılır.

    I feel bad. I have to go to a doctor.

    I have to go to the bank today because I don’t have any money in my pocket.

    I have to call Aykut today. I have to ask him about the lesson.

    They have to pass this test or they will not pass this lesson.

    A student has to study very hard.

    Her room is very untidy. She has to clean her room.

    He is very sick. He has to go to a doctor.

    Olumlu cümlelerde mana olarak “must” ile benzerdir.

    Olumsuz cümlelerde ise, “don’t have to, doesn’t have to” olarak kullanılır ve “gerek yok” manasına gelir. “Must”, olumsuz cümlelerde “yasak” manasını verirken, “have to” ifadesi çok daha hafiftir. Sadece “gerek yok” anlamı katar.

    I don’t have to wear a suit for work.

    I can hear you easily, you don’t have to shout.

    The weather is sunny, you don’t have to take an umbrella.

    He doesn’t have to run to school. He isn’t late.

    A soldier has to train hard.

    A soldier has to exercise every day.

    A soldier has to be strong.

    A soldier has to listen to the commander.

    A soldier has to wear uniforms.

    A soldier has to carry weapons.

    A soldier doesn’t have to work in an office.

    A soldier doesn’t have to cook for himself.

    A soldier doesn’t have to buy food.

    A soldier doesn’t have to go home in the evening.

    A soldier doesn’t have to know any songs.

    A soldier doesn’t have to take care of a baby.

    A soldier doesn’t have to have a lot of money.

    Soru cümlelerinde, “do” yardımcı fiilini kullanırız. Unutmayalım, 3. tekil şahıs için do yerine “does” kullanılır, ayrıca “does” kullanılmışsa yüklemi “have” olarak kullanmalıyız.

    -Doesa farmerhave to water the plants everyday?

    -Yes he does.

    -Doesan actorknow how to sing?

    -No, an actor doesn’t have to know how to sing.

    -Do I have to go shopping?

    -No, you don’t. We don’t need anything now.

    -Does a child have to get a job?

    -No, a child doesn’t have to get a job.

    -Does a policeman have to wear a uniform?

    -Yes, he does.

    Unit Six

    I want to eat a cake.

    He wants to drive a car.

    She wants to read a book.

    It wants to chase cats.

    We want to go to the cinema.

    You want to go on a holiday.

    They want to play a computer game.

    Want fiilinin kullanımı gördüğünüz gibidir. 3. tekil şahıslarda “-s” eki ekleriz.

    Bu cümlelerde bir şey yapmak istediğimiz manası vardır. Yani “want” yükleminden sonra, bir iş, bir eylem belirtiyoruz. Bunu yapmak için de, önce “to” sözcüğünü ekler, sonrasında da istediğimiz eylemi söyleriz.

    I wanttowatch TV but my father wantstogo for a walk.

    Olumsuz yapmak için de, daha önce de öğrendiğimiz şekilde üçüncü tekil şahıslarda “doesn’t” diğer şahıslarda “don’t” kullanırız.

    I don’twanttoplay tennis.

    He doesn’twanttoeat broccoli.

    She doesn’t want to go to the park.

    It doesn’t want to stay in the house.

    We don’t want to take a bath.

    You don’t want to wear that shirt.

    They don’t want to leave the beach.

    “Want + to + fiil” ile isteğimizi bildirdik. Şimdi ise, iki şey arasında tercih yapmayı öğrenelim.

    I preferan appletoa banana.

    He preferschocolatetoa candy.

    She prefers books to games.

    It prefers a bone to a tomato.

    We prefer dogs to cats as pets.

    You prefer kebab to vegetables.

    They prefer sunny weather to rainy weather.

    Verdiğimiz örneklerde “tercih etmek” manasında olan prefer fiilinden sonra iki nesne kullandık. Bu iki nesneden ilkini, ikincisine tercih ettiğimizi, yani ilkini ikincisinden daha çok istediğimizi anlatmış oluyoruz. Şimdi de prefer fiilinin bir başka kullanımını izah edelim.

    I preferplaying footballtobasketball.

    He prefers going to the zoo to the park.

    She prefers staying at home to going to the cinema.

    It prefers running in the garden to going in the house.

    We prefer watching TV to studying our lessons.

    You prefer walking to riding a bike.

    They prefer swimming to dancing.

    Verdiğimiz bu örneklerde ise, prefer fiilinden sonra “-ing” eklenmiş fiil kullandık. Böylece iki eylemden hangisini tercih ettiğimizi anlatmış oluyoruz. Yine bu iki eylemden ilkini ikincisinden daha çok istediğimizi anlatmış oluyoruz.

    Dikkat etmemiz gereken noktalar:

    Prefer yüklem ise, sonrasında da başka bir eylem anlatmak istiyorsak, fiili “-ing” ile kullanmalıyız.

    Karşılaştırmak istediğimiz iki eylem arasına yine to koymalıyız.

    İlk örnekte gördüğümüz gibi eğer iki eylemi de ortak fiil ile ifade edeceksek, (playing football, playing basketball) “to” sözcüğünden sonra ikinci dafa aynı fiili yazmaya gerek yoktur. İngilizce dilbilgisindeki bu kullanımın benzerini Türkçe’de de görürüz.

    I prefer playing football to playing basketball.

    I prefer playing football to basketball.

    Bunlara benzer kullanımlarla sık sık karşılaşacağız.

    Bu kullanımlar, Gerunds and Infinitives konusuna giriş sayılabilir… Ancak Gerunds and Infinitives çok çok geniş, ve daha ileri seviyelerde işlenecek bir konudur.

    Öneride bulunmak için “why don’t you…..” kalıbını kullanabiliriz.

    -I am bored.

    -Why don’t you read a book?

    -I am hungry.

    -Why don’t you make a sandwich?

    -I don’t feel very good.

    -Why don’t you go to a doctor?

    -It is very hot today.

    -Why don’t you go to the beach?

    Unit Seven

    Bu konuda, başkasının söylediği birşeyi aktarmayı öğreneceğiz.

    George: “I am very happy today.”

    I: George says he is very happy today.

    Bu cümleleri inceleyelim: George’un söylediği cümleyi, biz kendi kelimelerimiz ile bir başkasına aktarıyoruz.

    İngilizce “say” fiili, burada “aktarma fiili” olarak kullanılır. Özne, sözü söyleyen kişidir. Cümlenin kalanını da kendimiz kuruyoruz.

    He: “I am talking on the phone”

    He says he is talking on the phone.

    She: “I can run very fast.”

    She says she can run very fast.

    Jim and Susan: We are going to watch TV tonight.

    They say they are going to watch TV tonight.

    The students in the classroom: We don’t want to have an exam today.

    They say they don’t want to have an exam today.

    Hans and Emily: We have to study tonight.

    They say they have to study tonight.

    William: I was at school yesterday.

    William says he was at school yesterday.

    The teacher: We went to a museum yesteday.

    He says they went to a museum yesterday.

    “Used to” ile, geçmişte sık yapılan, ama artık yapılmayan eylemler (bunlara geçmiş alışkanlıklar diyebiliriz) anlatılır. Used to kullanılınca, eylemin bugün devam etmediği anlaşılır.

    We used to play football everyday but now we don’t.

    I used to go fishing but now I don’t go fishing.

    I used to go fishing but now I don’t.

    He used to live in Africa but now we don’t.

    I used to be a very good student but now I’m not.

    They used to play tennis but now they don’t.

    Michael Jackson used to sing but now he doesn’t.

    My dog used to chase cars in the street but now it doesn’t.

    “used to” ifadesini olumsuz hale getirirken, geçmiş zaman için uyguladığımız kuralları uygularız;

    cümleye “didn’t” ekleriz. “did” kullanıldığı zaman “use to” olarak yalın halde kullanılmalıdır.

    The students didn’t use to play football in schoolyard, but now they do.

    He didn’t use to get on a bus every morning but now he does.

    I didn’t use to like potatoes but now I do.

    You didn’t use to get bad grades but now you do.

    “used to” ifadesini soru haline getirirken ise, cümlenin başına “did” ekleriz. Yine “did” kullanıldığı zaman “use to” olarak kullanılmalıdır.

    -Did you use to ride a bicycle?

    -Yes, I used to ride a bicycle.

    -Did the team use to win a lot of games?

    -Yes, the team used to win a lot of games.

    -Did the man use to come home late?

    -No, he didn’t use to come home late.

    -What did those kids used to do?

    -They used to play at the park.

    -What didn’t the cars used to have?

    -The cars didn’t use to have radios.

    That is a very young baby. He looks very cute.

    The little girl is crying. She looks unhappy.

    There are beautiful flowers in the vase. They look beautiful.

    Ahmet didn’t come to school today. He feels ill.

    “Would like” öbeği ile daha önce de karşılaşmıştık. Burada, bir grubun içinden, bir tanesini tercih ettiğimizi bildirirken kullanacağız.

    -Which one do you want?

    -I’d like the blue one.

    I want to buy a present for my teacher. There is a long tie, and a short tie.

    My teacher would like the short one.

    -I have got two cones of ice cream. One is chocolate, the other is strawberry. Which one would you like?

    -I’d like the chocolate one.

    -Which one would your brother like?

    -He’d like the strawberry one.

    Bir çift çorap, bir demet çiçek gibi takım halinde bulunan şeylerde ise, “one” yerine “ones” kullanabiliriz.

    It’s mother’s day. We will buy a bouqet of flowers for my mother. There are yellow flowers and red roses.

    My mother would like the red ones.

    Unit Eight

    He has just finished his homework.

    She has just finished her game.

    He has just arrived.

    The train has just arrived.

    We have just called your grandmother.

    Bu cümlelerde vurgulanan manayı anlayabildiniz mi? Yapılan işin “henüz, az önce” bittiğini söylemiş oluyoruz.

    My sister has already done her homework.

    School has already finished.

    The match has already started.

    They have already cleaned their rooms.

    Bu cümlelerde de “zaten, çoktan” gibi manalar çıkıyor. Yani bahsedilen iş zaten bitmiştir.

    Bu kullanıma “Present Perfect Tense” denir. Bu kullanımın Türkçe’de tam bir karşılığı yoktur. Genel

    olarak, geçmişte gerçekleşmiş olaylar ile bugün arasında bir çeşit ilişki kurar.

    Önemli notlar:

    Kullanım, “have + v3” şeklindedir.

    3. tekil şahıslar için “have” yerine “has” kullanılmalıdır.

    Have burada yardımcı fiil rolündedir.

    v3 ise, fiilin üçüncü hali demektir. Daha önce geçmiş zaman için fiilin ikinci halini kullanmıştık. Perfect tense isimli bu kullanım için de v3 kullanacağız.

    Düzenli fiillerde, ikinci ve üçüncü haller aynıdır, yani kısaca fiilin sonuna “-ed” ekleriz. Düzensiz fiillerin üçüncü hallerini ise, yine tabloda vereceğiz.

    v1

    v2

    v3

    v1

    v2

    v3

    Come

    build

    cut

    fall

    go

    see

    leave

    write

    sell

    sleep

    take

    understand

    win

    wear

    say

    teach

    read

    Came

    built

    cut

    fell

    went

    saw

    left

    wrote

    sold

    slept

    took

    understood

    won

    wore

    said

    taught

    read

    Come

    built

    cut

    fallen

    gone

    seen

    left

    written

    sold

    slept

    taken

    understood

    won

    worn

    said

    taught

    read

    Find

    catch

    do

    drive

    have

    make

    meet

    run

    sit

    speak

    tell

    buy

    stand

    eat

    give

    hear

    know

    think

    Found

    caught

    did

    drove

    had

    made

    met

    ran

    sat

    spoke

    told

    bought

    stood

    ate

    gave

    heard

    knew

    thought

    Found

    caught

    done

    driven

    had

    made

    met

    ran

    sat

    spoken

    told

    bought

    stood

    eaten

    gave

    heard

    known

    thought

    have “‘ve”, has de “‘s” şeklinde kısaltılabilir. Olumsuz yapmak için basitçe yardımcı fiile “not” eklenir, soru yapmak için de yardımcı fiil başa alınır. Her durumda, hem yardımcı fiil (have) hem de v3 beraberce kullanılır.

    Diğer bir kullanım da henüz yapılmadığı manasını veren “yet” sözcüğüyledir. Bu kullanımda, cümleyi olumsuz kurarız.

    We haven’t gone to the doctor yet.

    We haven’t talked to the new student yet.

    He hasn’t left yet?

    They haven’t bought a car yet.

    “yet”, soru cümlelerinde de kullanılabilir.

    -Have you met the teacher yet?

    -No, I haven’t met him yet.

    -Have the kids eaten lunch yet?

    -Yes, they have already eaten lunch.

    -Has he repaired the car yet?

    -Yes, he has just repaired the car.

    İngilizce konuşurken nazikçe izin istemek için “May I…….?” sorusunu kullanırız.

    Mesela, sınıfa geç kalmışsak, öğretmene “May I come in?” diye sorarak izin istemeliyiz.

    Telefonda arkadaşımızı istemek için: “May I talk to Ahmet?” diyebiliriz.

    Birinden nazikçe su istemek için “May I have a glass of water?” diyebiliriz.

    Unit Nine

    I will study for my exam.

    It will bury the bone into the garden.

    You will go to the hospital.

    They will talk to the principal.

    İngilizce ‘de en sık kullanılan gelecek zaman ifadesi “will” dir. Cümlede özneden hemen sonra “will” sözcüğünü kullanırsak, gelecek zaman manası katmış oluruz. “Will”den hemen sonra yüklem gelir. Ayrıca will kısaltılarak “‘ll” şeklinde de kullanılabilir.

    I will go home at 6:30 this evening.

    He will watch tv after he finishes his homework.

    They will arrive tonight.

    Olumsuz cümle kurmak için “won’t” kullanırız.

    She won’t go shopping.

    He won’t do his homework.

    We won’t visit our teacher.

    Soru cümlesi kurmak için ise, will başa alınır.

    -Where will you go for holiday this summer?

    -I will go to Bolu.

    -When will you leave?

    -I’ll leave next week.

    -How will you travel to Bolu?

    -I will ride my motorcycle to Bolu.

    -Will you go alone?

    -No, I’ll go with a friend.

    -When will you meet him?

    -We’ll meet him after school.

    -What will you do in Bolu?

    -I will do hiking in mountains.

    -What will you take with you?

    -I’ll take a big bag with me.

    -How long will you stay there?

    -We will stay there for a week.

    I won’t go to school tomorrow.

    I will eat lunch with my friends tomorrow.

    I won’t take a bath tomorrow.

    I will visit a museum tomorrow.

    What will she do tomorrow?

    What will they wait for?

    How many apples will he eat?

    How much chocolate will he buy?

    Where will you go?

    How will you got there?

    Won’t you drive your car there?

    Unit Ten

    Toys are made from plastic.

    Our dinner plates are made from ceramic.

    My ring is made of silver.

    Bu cümlelerde nesnelerin hangi materyalden yapıldığını söyledik.

    Oyuncaklar plastikten yapılır.

    Burada esas dikkat etmemiz gereken, “yapılır” kelimesidir. Dikkat edersek, bu kelimenin “edilgen” olduğunu görürüz.

    Bu ünitede ingilizce günlük konuşmalarda da çok kullandığımız “edilgenlik” konusuna giriş yapacağız. Geniş zaman ile kurulmuş cümleleri edilgen hale çevireceğiz.

    Edilgenlik (Passive) kullanımı, Türkçe’dekine çok benzerdir.

    Tanımı şöyledir: Öznenin yüklemde belirtilen eylemi yapan değil, eylemden etkilenen olduğu cümlelere edilgen cümle denir.

    Örnek olarak “cam kırıldı” cümlesini ele alalım.

    Cümlenin yüklemi “kırıldı” kelimesi oluyor.

    “Cam” da, özne görevindedir.

    Mana olarak ise, özne aslında eylemi gerçekleştiren değildir. Sadece eylemden etkilenendir.

    “The window is broken.”

    The mantellsa story.

    A storyis told by the man.

    Yapmamız gerekenler:

    Etken cümlenin nesnesi, passive cümlede özne olarak kullanılır.

    Fiil, passive hale çevrilir. Nasıl çevrildiğini inceleyeceğiz.

    Etken cümlenin öznesi, yani işi esas yapan kişi “by” sözcüğünden sonra eklenebilir. Ancak eklemek şart değildir, hatta çoğunlukla da eklenmez.

    Fiillerin passive hali “be+v3” şeklindedir. “Be”, şahsa göre “am, is, are” şekillerinde kullanılabilir.

    My father pays the bills.

    Bills are paid by my father.

    The children play football.

    Football is played by the children.

    Tea is grown in Rize.

    Cotton is grown in Çukurova.

    Houses are cleaned for the feast.

    Party invitations are sent.

    French is spoken in Canada.

    Toys are sold in toy stores.

    Baseball is played in America.

    Dinner is made by my mother everyday.

    Criminals are caught by the police.

    History is taught at school.

    Students are thought by the teacher.

    My homework is done by me after dinner.

    Sugar is grown in South America.

    Oranges are grown in Adana.

    Bu iki cümlede neden farklı yardımcı fiiller kullandık? Çünkü birincide özne tekil (zaten sayılamaz isim olduğu için tekil olmak zorunda), ikinci cümlede ise çoğul haldedir.

    Cars are manufactured in Bursa.

    Lemons are grown in Cyprus.

    Corn is grown in northern Anatolia.

    We like eating chocolate.

    She likes eating chocolate.

    Edgar likes eating chocolate.

    He likes reading a book.

    You like riding a motorcycle most.

    Sam likes driving a car most.

    Their children like visiting the zoo most.

    Bu cümlelerde, en çok sevilen aktiviteler anlatılıyor.

    The fat man likes eating desserts most.

  • Unit 1 - Friendship

    I think the most important quality of a true friend is sincerity. A true friend must be sincere to me. He must always say the right things and he must warn me when I’m doing something wrong. Other important qualities are reliability and honesty. A friend must be supportive, it is important too. A true friend doesn’t have to be beautiful or handsome. He or she doesn’t have to be tall or slim either.

    I think friendship is very different from love because friendship last much longer. My friend thinks friendship is similar to love because both are very important. You should try hard to keep your friendship and love. They need care and patience.

    Good friends stand by each other. He is grateful for each day. My pet brings joy to my life. Does a lot of money make your dreams come true? A true friend sees the best in someone. I’ll be there for you.

    -Hi, George, do you still have my dictionary?You borrowed it last month and didn’t return it yet. -Hello, Newman. Are you sure I didn’t return it to you? I… errr… can’t remember. -Yes, George. I have been waiting for a month! -Hmm. I can’t remember where I left it. I’m sorry, I think I lost it. -I can’t believe you! You always loose other people’s things. -I’m really sorry. I can buy you a new one. -Okay but you shouldn’t behave like this. You must be more more careful next time. -Sure. I promise, I will be more careful.

    You should study harder and do more exercies because practice makes perfect. You can ask your friends and family for help. You can also ask the teachers for help. You must try to understand the sentences but you mustn’t try to memorise their translations. You must pay attention in class and do the activities in the workbook.

    My ideal friend should be sincere. My ideal friend must always tell the truth. My ideal friend must be understanding. My ideal friend should be honest and reliable too.

    Unit 2 - Road to Success

    I like drawing and note taking but I am not good at pair work. I learn better by watching and doing something.

    I am curious about my learning style but I am not aware of my it.

    Left brain dominant people think realistically. They prefer working alone in a quiet place. They want to listen and speak. Engineers, doctors and journalists are usually left-brained learners.

    Right brain dominant people think intuitively. They prefer to work in groups. They want to see, feel or touch their favourite activities. Actors, artists and beauticians are usually right-brained learners.

    Left brained people are realistic.

    Left brained people think realistically.

    Bu iki cümleyi inceleyelim. Birinci cümlede, yüklem “are” yardımcı fiilidir. ” realistic” kelimesi de, özneyi niteleyen bir sıfat durumundadır. “be (am, is, are) + sıfat” ile özne nitelenebilir. Bu kullanıma sıkça rastlarız.

    I am happy.

    I am realistic.

    İkinci cümlede ise, yüklem “think” fiilidir. “realistically” kelimesi de fiili nitelemektedir. Yani zarf göreviyle kullanılmıştır.

    I work happily.

    I think realistically.

    Gördüğünüz gibi, kelimenin sıfat ve zarf olarak kullanımı arasında fark vardır. Sıfatları zarf olarak kullanmak için önce zarfa dönüştürmemiz gerekiyor.

    Bunu da genellikle kelimenin sonuna “-ly” eki getirerek yapıyoruz.

    Çoğu sıfatın sonuna “-ly” takısını ekleriz.

    quick

    soft

    quiet

    shortly

    bad

    careless

    quickly

    softly

    quietly

    shortly

    badly

    carelessly

    easy

    happy

    simple

    incredible

    fast

    hard

    early

    late

    easily.

    happily

    simply

    incredibly

    fast

    hard

    early

    late

    Bazı sıfatlar da tamamen düzensiz olarak zarflaştırılır.

    good

    well

    Unit 3 - Improving One's Looks

    I pay some attention to my appearance but not too much.

    I pay a lot of attention to my face but I don’t pay as much attention to my body.

    If you have problems with your skin, firstly you should keep your skin clean. Secondly, you should use body care products. You should also sleep well and then, you should stop eating junk food. If you eat junk food, your skin will be oily and you’ll have acne problems. Don’t forget to use organic products.

    You should stop eating junk food everyday because it is too dangerous for your health and skin.

    “too” kelimesi kullanılarak, bahsedilen durumun çok “aşırı” tehlikeli olduğu vurgulanmış. “Too + sıfat” kullanımıyla sadece çok olduğu değil, gereğinden fazla olduğu bildirilmiş oluyor.

    (excessive=aşırı)

    Her skin is smooth enough. She doesn’t need to use any products.

    “enough” kelimesi kullanılarak, bahsedilen durumun “yeterli, yeteri kadar” yumuşak, düzgün olduğu vurgulanmış. “sıfat + enough” kullanımıyla miktarın yeterli olduğu anlatılmış olur.

    (sufficient=yeterli)

    Dikkat etmemiz gereken bir diğer nokta şudur: “too” sıfattan önce gelir ancak “enough” sıfattan sonra gelir.

    Your skin is too dry.

    My face is clean enough.

    DermaHelp Gel can heal blemished skin and destryos infections. It also protects and rebuilds the natural structure of your tissue.

    Do you eat healthy food? What else do you do for your health?

    What are your hobbies? What are your favourite activities? Do you like music?

    Do you have any advice for teenagers?

    Do you have any special methods for skin care? Do you have any secret methods for skin care?

    Unit 4 - Dreams

    There are some people in the pictures. They are doing activities. They look happy. An old man is watching TV. An old woman is knitting something. A younger man is reading the newspaper while two kids are doing a puzzle. Two young ladies are drinking something and chatting. These must be their favourite activities in their free time.

    I don’t think dreams have certain meanings all the time because I sometimes see things I did in that day in my dreams. Some dreams have meanings, but most of them are meaningless.

    Bu konuda gördüğümüz birçok farklı kullanım, cümle içinde sebep-sonuç bildirmektedir. Bunların en belirgini “if” kelimeciği ile kurulan cümlelerdir. If ” eğer ” anlamındadır.

    If you ride a bicycle in your dream, it shows the need to balance work and pleasure in your life.

    Birinci cümle sebep, ikinci cümle ise sonuç sunmaktadır.

    If you see an airplane in your dream, you will solve your problems.

    If you see comfortable shoes in your dreams, it means that you are becoming comfortable with your personality.

    Seeing a car in your dream can show your interest in cars. It can also mean that you are going to be hit by a car.

    If you see a donkey in your dream, it can mean that you will be kicked by a donkey in a few days.

    I think the family is talking about dreams they saw last night.

    The man’s bed, blanket and pillows look very old. The man must be poor in real life. In his dream, he has nice clothes, a lot of money and a nice car. He is richer in his dreams.

    İ Bu cümlelerden birinde vakit belirtiriz, diğerinde de olaydan bahsederiz. “when” ile kurduğumuz cümlecikte vakit belirtilir ve diğer cümle de, tam bu belirttiğimiz anda olan bir olaydan, bir eylemden bahseder. “when” sözcüğü bir andan bahseder. Süreklilik ifade etmez.

    When we looked back, the monster was chasing us.

    Bu cümleyi incelersek, “when we looked back” zaman bildiren cümleciğimiz oluyor. Diğer cümlecikte de, tam bu an esnasında gerçekleşmekte olan olaydan bahsediliyor.

    “when we looked back” shows a moment in the past. It is not a continuing action.

    “the monster was chasing us” is a continuing action. The monster started chasing them before they looked back, and continued chasing them for some more time. Now, it is not chasing them.

    “the monster was chasing us” is a long action that started and finished in the past.

    “we looked back” is a very short action that happened in a moment in the past.

    “While” ifadesi ise, “when”den farklı olarak, bir süreklilik de ifade eder. While ile kurulan cümlecikte bahsedilen olay devam ederken, diğer olayın gerçekleştiğini anlatabiliriz.

    “While I was walking to these people” shows a continuing action that took place in the past.

    “I saw a very beautiful girl” is not a continuing action.

    We use “when” for short, non- continuing actions and “while” for long, continuing actions.

    Geçmişteki sürekli olmayan olaylar, simple past tense ile anlatılır. “I went to school”

    Geçmişteki sürekli olan olaylar ise, past continuous tense ile anlatılır.”I was going to school”

    No, I’m not joking. The bird caught me and started to fly. I was flying with the bird. I was very excited. I couldn’t talk for a minute. Then I started talking and told the bird to stop.The bird looked at me and said I can’t stop. While the bird was talking, I saw a big mountain. The bird was flying me to the mountain. The bird started to slow down when we reached the mountain and stopped on near a cave. I dropped on the ground and started running. While I was running, I turned back and looke at the bird but it disappered. Then I woke up..

    Last night, I was in my dream garden. I was sitting under a huge tree with my dog and I was watching the beautiful flowers. I was very relaxed because the garden was quiet. There was only the sound of the wind and birds. I was listening to the birds but I couldn’t see them.

    Unit 5 - Atatürk: The Founder of Turkish Republic

    İngilizce yılları okumak için, önce ilk iki basamak, sonra son iki basamak okunur.

    1980 nineteen eighty 1453 fourteen fifty three

    1879 eighteen seventy nine 1993 nineteen ninety three

    1201 twelve oh one 1907 nineteen oh seven

    632 six thirty two 430 four thirty

    2000’li yılları bu şekilde okununca karışıklık olacağı için, normal sayı şeklinde okunuyor. Karışıklık olmayacak ise, diğer yöntem ile de okunabilir.

    2002 two thousand and two 2008 two thousand and eight

    2010 two thousand and ten

    2096 two thousand and ninety six veya twenty ninetysix

    Ayın günü söylenirken, daha önce öğrendiğimiz sıra sayıları kullanılır. (First, Second gibi)

    22 November the twenty second of November

    18/Aug the eighteenth of August

    06/01 the sixth of January

    03/02 the twenty third of February

    Atatürk : The Founder of Turkish Republic

    On May 19, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha landed in Samsun to start the War of Independence. On April 23, 1920, The Turkish Grand National Assembly was founded. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was elected to its Presidency. In July 1923, the national government signed the Lausanne Treaty. In October, Ankara became the capital. On October 29, the Republic was proclaimed and Mustafa Kemal was elected President of Turkish Republic. During his fifteen year Presidency, he made political, social, legal, economic, educational, and cultural reforms. He created e new political and legal system, abolished the Caliphate and made both government and education secular, gave equal rights to women, changed the alphabet and the attire, and advanced the arts and the sciences, agriculture and industry. In 1934, when the surname law was adopted, the national parliament gave him the name ” Atatürk ” which means Father of the Turks. On November 10, 1938, following an illness of a few months, the national hero died. But his legacy to his people and to the world endures.

    “Peace at home, Peace in the world” emphasises the importance of peace. It show that we don’t want war, we want peace in our lands and we want peace in all the world too. War is not a good thing.

    All of those statements are about continuing events in the past. They are questions. The first question starts with “what”. It’s a question word. We use it to gain information. The other sentences start with “was, were”. They are the past forms of “am, is, are”. These two sentences does not ask about information, they ask if the statements are correct. They are called “yes-no questions”.

    I would like to ask him about his memories.

    I would like to ask him to tell some stories about the war.

    I would like to ask him for advice for the new generation.

    -Hello, sir. I’d like to make an interview with you for a school project.

    -I would be very happy to give you an interview. Do you have any questions?

    -Yes, I’d like to ask about your personal information first, what is your name and how old are you?

    -My name’s Hasan Çavuş. I’m very old now. I’m 100.

    -What do you lie to do in your free time?

    -I like to chat with my friends. They are old too but they are very dear for me. I love them very much.

    -Are they your friends from the army?

    -Only a few of them are. Most of my friends from the army died.

    -Could you tell us about the war?

    -Yes, I was 13 years old when it started. I was working in cotton fields. Then we joined the army and fought against the enemy.

    -Was the war very difficult.

    -Yes, those were very difficult times.

    -Why was it difficult? Did you have enough water and food?

    -We couldn’t find clean food and water. We couldn’t find enough ammunition either. The enemy’s army had better conditions but we were very brave.

    -Was the enemy’s army bigger?

    -Yes, they had more soldiers than our army.

    -How was the weather?

    -It was very hot. We needed a lot of water, but we could find only a little. It wasn’t enough.

    -What’s your opinion about war?

    -War is a very bad thing. It is horrible. People shouldn’t kill each other. People should talk to each other and reach a conclusion. I hope we never have war again.

    -Thank you, sir. You are a hero and very important for us.

    His name is Hasan Çavuş. He is 100 years old. Today, he likes to chat with his friends. He was 13 years old when the war started. He said that the war was very difficult. The weather was very hot, but they couldn’t find enough clean water and food. The enemy’s army had better conditions but the Turkish soldiers were very brave. He said that the war is a terrible thing. People shouldn’t kill each other because they can talk and reach a conclusion. He hopes we never have war again.

    Unit 6 - Detective Stories

    Bu dersimizde ingilizce dilbilgisindeki when, if , past continuous tense in kullanımlarını aşağıdaki okumalar içerisinde inceleyeceğiz.

    I was at home and I was playing a computer game last night when Spotty was on TV.

    The story is about detectives and a lost treasure.

    If someone accuses me of stealing something, I would immediately call the police. I would explain the facts to them and I would tell them all of the truth.

    When the teacher came in, Stacy was playing with a paper airplane and the other two students were talking to each other.

    While Mrs. Spoon was writing on the board, Trevor saw a spider and Julie’s books fell on the floor.

    Bu cümlelerde, bir kısa olay ile bir uzun olayın zaman olarak birbiri ile ilişkisini anlatırız.

    -What were you doing at the time of the incident Stacey?

    -I was eating my chocolate cookies.

    -What kind of shoes were you wearing that day?

    -I was wearing trainers.

    -What were you doing at the time of the incident Ted?

    -I was drawing with my crayons.

    -What kind of shoes were you wearing that day?

    -I was wearing my favourite trainers.

    Ted or Stacey can’t be the guilty person because they were wearing trainers that day. Only Jullie has spaces between her teeth. She must be the guilty person because the teeth impressions on the cookies indicated teeth with spaces between them.

    Unit 7 - Personal Experiences

    Spotty will make a cake The action will take place in the future.

    Spotty was sleeping when Tessa came in. The action took place in the past and it was a long action.

    Spotty played with Tessa in the park. The action took place in the past and it was a short action.

    Spotty is reading a newspaper. The action takes place now and it is a short action.

    Spotty always watches TV in the evening.

    The action takes place in various times.

    It took place in the past, in takes place now and it will take place in the future too.

    Hi, I’m Mike. I have got a diary. My diary is like my friend. I usually write about my feelings in it. I share a lot with my diary.

    Hello, I’m Jeremy. I haven’t got a diary because I don’t like writing about my feelings. I like talking about them. I have very good friends and I share my feelings with them.

    Have you ever been to the top of Ben Nevis?

    I’ve never seen such a beautiful scene.

    Bu iki cümleyi inceleyelim. İkisi de geçmişteki, ancak tam olarak zamanı belli olmayan eylemleri anlatır.

    Burada kullanılan tense’e “present perfect tense” deriz. İngilizce dilbilgisinde çok kullanılan bu tense, gelecek ile içinde bulunduğumuz zaman arasında bir bağlantı kurar.

    Kullanımı;

    “have + v3” şeklindedir.

    3. tekil şahıslar için “have” yerine “has” kullanılmalıdır.

    Have burada yardımcı fiil rolündedir.

    v3 ise, fiilin üçüncü hali demektir. Daha önce geçmiş zaman için fiilin ikinci halini kullanmıştık. Perfect tense isimli bu kullanım için de v3 kullanacağız.

    Düzenli fiillerde, ikinci ve üçüncü haller aynıdır, yani kısaca fiilin sonuna “-ed” ekleriz. Bazı sık kullanılan düzensiz fiillerin üçüncü halleri tabloda verelim.

    v1

    v2

    v3

    v1

    v2

    v3

    come

    build

    cut

    fall

    go

    see

    leave

    write

    sell

    sleep

    take

    understand

    win

    wear

    say

    teach

    read

    came

    built

    cut

    fell

    went

    saw

    left

    wrote

    sold

    slept

    took

    understood

    won

    wore

    said

    taught

    read

    come

    built

    cut

    fallen

    gone

    seen

    left

    written

    sold

    slept

    taken

    understood

    won

    worn

    said

    taught

    read

    find

    catch

    do

    drive

    have

    make

    meet

    run

    sit

    speak

    tell

    buy

    stand

    eat

    give

    hear

    know

    think

    found

    caught

    did

    drove

    had

    made

    met

    ran

    sat

    spoke

    told

    bought

    stood

    ate

    gave

    heard

    knew

    thought

    found

    caught

    done

    driven

    had

    made

    met

    ran

    sat

    spoken

    told

    bought

    stood

    eaten

    gave

    heard

    known

    thought

    Geçmişte yaşadığımız tecrübeler, bu tense’e en güzel örnektir. “Geçmişte, şu eylemi yaptım” demek için bu tense’i kullanırız.

    I have been to Rome.

    I have played baseball.

    I have seen that movie.

    -Have you ever been to Antalya?

    -Yes, I have been to Antalya.

    -Have you ever been to Adana?

    -No, I haven’t been to Adana.

    -Have you ever been to Trabzon?

    -No, I have never been to Trabzon.

    -Have you ever been abroad?

    -Yes I have.

    -Which countries have you been to?

    -I have been to Germany and Bosnia. What about you?

    -I have never been abroad. I would like to go to Australia.

    Jack didn’t know about Aunt Carole’s trip to Africa. Tessa didn’t know about it either.

    Jack and Tessa didn’t know about Aunt Carole’s trip to Africa.

    It is Caroline’s dream to go to Africa. It is Jack’s dream to go to Africa too.

    It is Caroline’s and Jack’s dream.

    Buradaki cümlelerde, iki kişinin aynı durumundan bahsediliyor. Bu durumu, eğer cümleler olumlu ise sonuna cümlenin “too” ekleyerek, eğer cümleler olumsuzsa cümlenin sonuna “either” ekleyerek yaparız.

    I want chocolate. Ayşe wants chocolate too.

    I don’t want to sing. Ali doesn’t want to sing either.

    -I’m very happy

    -I’m very happy too. (Me too.)

    -I’m not sad

    -I’m not sad either. (Me neither.)

    “Neither” kelimesini, “not either” gibi düşünebiliriz. Either olumsuz yapıdaki cümlelerde kullanılırken, “neither” kelimesi zaten olumsuz mana verdiği için, olumlu yapıdaki cümlelerde kullanılmalıdır. Özellikle kısa cevaplarda “neither” tercih edilir.

    -I don’t want to play football now.

    -I don’t want to play football now either. (Me neither)

    -I didn’t go shopping yesterday

    -Me neither.

    -Hi Robbie, can I make an interview with you?

    -Ok, Let’s have an interview.

    -Tell us about yourself.

    -I like travelling very much. I’ve been to many countries such as the USA, Italy and Türkiye.

    -I haven’t been to those countries.

    -Oh! Haven’t you been to Italy or the USA? You should go as soon as possible. Those are wonderful places.

    -Do you like traditional food, What’s your favourite?

    -I like traditional food very much. My favourite is Chinese food.

    -I’ve never eaten Chinese food. What’s it like?

    -Haven’t you ever tried it? Oh! It’s great, you should try it some time. In fact, let’s go to a Chinese restaurant now!

    Robie is a very famous person. We made a little interview with him. He likes travelling very much and he has been to many countries such as the USA, Italy and Türkiye. He liked all of them and he thinks they are wonderful places. He likes traditional food too. Especially Chinese food. He said it’s great and he offered to take me to a Chinese restaurant.

    Unit 8 - Cooperation in the Family

    -Have you ever driven a sportscar?

    -No I haven’t. Have you ever seen the Eiffel tower?

    -Yes I have, I’ve seen it once.

    Susan, you will pick up wood for the fire. George, you will light the fire. Jim, you will bring water from the lake.

    -I’ve been very busy lately

    -I’ve had difficulty in doing my errands recently.

    Both sentences are in “present perfect tense”. The time of the action is indefinite in both of them. We use “recently” and “lately” to talk about recent past. These words are usually in the end of the sentences.

    I really enjoy parties because I can see a lot of friends in parties. Sometimes, I meet new people and make friends in parties too. People give parties to have a good time with friends. I haven’t been to a party recently, because I’ve been busy lately.

    Tessa promised to bring the cake but she didn’t arrive on time. She was late. The kids ordered another cake and have eaten it when Tessa arrived. Tessa didn’t keep her promise.

    -Hüsnü, can you help me with the preperations of the party?

    -Of course. What do you need?

    -I need to party hats ballons, I need to send the invitations too.

    -I can buy the party hats and balloons. How many hats do you need?

    -The party is for ten people, so why don’t you buy ten hats.

    -Good idea, how abour balloons?

    -I think we will need twenty balloons.

    -Okay, do you need anything else?

    -Well, I will select the music, send the invitations and decorate the room. We also need to order a cake and sume cup cakes.

    -I can order them too.

    -That would be great. Thank you, Hüsnü.

    -No problem.

    make a cake

    make a party

    make housework

    make friends

    make music

    make love

    make war

    take a break

    take a coat

    take off

    take an umbrella

    take a picture

    take a cab

    tidy a room

    tidy up

    tidy your bed

    do homework

    do shopping

    do research

    do exercise

    do housework

    do gardening

    do cleaning

    Present perfect tense, “yet” sözcüğü ile sık sık kullanılır. Bu sözcüğün ingilizce anlamı, henüz yapılmamış bir eylem olarak açıklanabilir. Bu kullanımda, cümleyi olumsuz kurarız.

    We haven’t gone to the doctor yet.

    We haven’t talked to the new student yet.

    He hasn’t left yet?

    They haven’t bought a car yet.

    “yet”, soru cümlelerinde de kullanılabilir.

    -Have you met the teacher yet?

    -No, I haven’t met him yet.

    -Have the kids eaten lunch yet?

    -Yes, they have already eaten lunch.

    -Has he repaired the car yet?

    -Yes, he has just repaired the car.

    “Yet” sözcüğü, cümlenin sonunda kullanılır.

    “Henüz yapılmadı” demek, aynı zamanda yapılması bekleniyor demek de oluyor.

    He has just finished his homework.

    She has just finished her game.

    He has just arrived.

    The train has just arrived.

    We have just called your grandmother.

    Bu cümlelerde vurgulanan manayı anlayabildiniz mi? Yapılan işin “henüz, az önce” bittiğini söylemiş oluyoruz. “Just” sözcüğü, “henüz” anlamına gelir ve yardımcı fiil (have, has) den hemen sonra kullanılır.

    My sister has already done her homework.

    School has already finished.

    The match has already started.

    They have already cleaned their rooms.

    Bu cümlelerde de “zaten, çoktan” gibi manalar çıkıyor. Yani bahsedilen iş zaten bitmiştir. Bu manayı cümleye “already” kelimesi kazandırıyor. “already” kelimesi de, “just” kelimesi gibi e yardımcı fiil (have, has) den hemen sonra kullanılır.

    Henüz yapılmamışsa “yet”

    henüz bitmişse “just”

    zaten, çoktan yapılmışsa “already” kullanırız.

    Tekrar hatırlatalım, olumsuz cümleler kurmak için “have not, has not” kullanırız ve bunları kısaca “haven’t, hasn’t” olarak yazabiliriz.

    My parents seldom give me a “to do list” because I do eveything on time. I make my bed everyday and often tidy my room. I keep my room clean. I do my shopping when I need to. I do my homework and projects on time, I help my brother and sisters. My parents only give me a to do list when they want me to do something for the house. My mother wrote “cut the grasses, and take out the trash” to the last to do list, and I did them immediately.

    -Hi, Tessa, How are you? How was your day?

    -I’m fine, mother. It has been a busy day.

    -Could you tidy your room and make the beds Tessa?

    -Yes, mum.

    -What about the carpets. Why didn’t you clean them?

    -I was going to clean them but my friend called and we had a very long conversation on the phone. Then my favourite program started on TV and I watched it. I’m sorry.

    -That’s OK. Have you washed Spotty yet?

    -No, I couldn’t do it either. The TV program has just finished.

    -Can you wash Spotty now?

    -I’m afraid I can’t. It’s getting dark.

    -That’s very bad.

    I’m very upset. I’ve made the beds. I’ve emptied the dustbin and I’ve tidied my room too but I haven’t cleaned the carpets or put the books on the shelves yet and I haven’t washed Spotty yet. Because I couldn’t do these errands, my mother wasn’t happy. I did half of the list, but it wasn’t enough for her.

    Mrs. Thomson has already cooked. The family have just eaten a meal. Someone has just been in the kitchen too because the floors are muddy.

    Mrs. Thomson hasn’t cleaned the kitchen yet. She hasn’t cleaned the floors yet. She hasn’t done the dishes yet. She hasn’t fed Spotty yet either.

    Unit 9 - Success Stories

    I am interested in science. I always try to read new articles about science. I have watched the life of scientists on documentary programs. Some scientist work in space and some scientist work under water. They have very interesting lives.

    For me, success is doing good things and helping human beings. Making loads of money is not important for me. So I disagree with Tessa.

    İngilizce “Since” sözcüğüyle, geçmişte bir noktadan itibaren günümüze kadar geçen vakti anlatırız. “Since” kullanmak için, kesin bir başlangıç noktası belirtilmelidir.

    I have been in school since 8 a.m.

    He has been on holiday since last Friday.

    They have been in this city since ’92.

    I lived in this city since I was born.

    I haven’t seen John since we met last week.

    “For” sözcüğünü ise bugüne kadar geçen sürenin miktarını anlatmak için kullanırız.

    He has been on holiday for a week.

    I have been in school for 4 hours.

    They have been in this city for 17 years.

    “since” shows the starting time of the action.

    “for” shows the length of the action.

    I have heard of emotional intelligence, but I don’t know much about it.

    I am very happy as a duckling. I have got many brothers and sisters. I love them and I know that they love me too. They are very sincere. My mother takes care of us. She helps us learn about the world. My family is supportive. I feel safe when I am with my family.

    -Hello, Atakan. Can you help me with my project? I want to write about a scientist. I think you know about him.

    -Sure, what’s the name of the scientist you want to write about?

    -I want to write about Rene Descartes. What nationality was he?

    -He was French.

    -When was he born?

    -He was born on the thirty-first of March,fifteen ninety-six.

    -Hmm. Where did he live?

    -He lived in La Haye. It’s in the south of France.

    -What were his fields of studies?

    -He studied in Philosophy, theology, medicine, science, mathematics. He studied on Civil and canon law at Poitiers.

    -Very good. What else do you know about him?

    -He wrote many philosophical essays and he liked to explore the world of sicence and mathematics.

    -Can you tell me about his accomplishments?

    -Of course. He was a famous mathematician, philosopher and a scientist. He was also a publisher of many papers on philosophy and medicine.

    -What was his education?

    -He graduated from The Jesuit College of Henri IV in La Fleche.

    -Thank you, Atakan. You have been very helpful.

    -See you later Cem.

    The scientist’s name is Rene Descartes. He was French and he was born on the thirty-first of March,fifteen ninety-six. He lived in La Haye in the south of France. He studied in Philosophy, Theology, Medicine, Science, Mathematics and he studied on Civil and Canon Law at Poitiers. He was famous for his philosophical essays and he liked to explore the world of sicence and mathematics.

    He was a famous mathematician, philosopher and a scientist because he was a publisher of many papers on philosophy and medicine. He graduated from The Jesuit College of Henri IV in La Fleche.

    The invention I want to talk about is “wheel”. It was invented in the fifth millennium BC. Wheel has been used for more than seven thousand years! It is one of the most important inventions in the world. It made people’s lives easier.

    Unit 10 - Reading for Entertainment

    I read Cindrella when I was a child but I didn’t read Rapunzel. I liked it very much. It was about a girl and her family. I saw a movie about Little Red Riding hood. There was a little girl, her grandmother and a hungry wolf in the story. It was a very good story and a very good movie.

    My favourite film is the Godfather. My favourite film music is the music in the Godfather movie.

    such……. that, so……. that

    Örnek cümlelerimizi biraz inceleyelim.

    Cinderella is a very beautiful and innocent girl. Steven falls in love with her.

    Steven falls in love with Cinderella because she is a very beautiful and innocent girl.

    Cinderella is so beautiful that Steven falls in love with her.

    Cinderella is a clever girl. She will make the right decision.

    Cinderella will make the right decision because she is a clever girl.

    Cinderella is such a clever girl that she will make the right decision.

    Gördüğünüz gibi, “so……. that, such……. that” ifadeleri sebep-sonuç ilişkisi kurarlar.

    We don’t want to stay inside because the weather is very good.

    The weather is so good that we don’t want to stay inside.

    This is such a good weather that we don’t want to stay inside.

    Kullanımlarında ufak bir fark vardır.

    so

    good

    that

    so

    +

    sıfat/zarf

    +

    that

    Such

    good

    food

    that

    Such

    +

    sıfat

    +

    noun

    +

    that

    “so……. that” kalıbı kullanılırken, so ile that arasına sadece sıfat (veya sıfatlar) yazılırken, “such……. that” kalıbında such ile that arasına sıfat tamlaması; yani hem sıfat, hem isim gelmelidir. İngilizce çalışırken, bu iki kalıp arasındaki farkı tekrarlayarak ve pratik yaparak konuyu daha iyi kavrayacağız.

    Cinderella is so beautiful that Steven falls in love with her.

    Cinderella is such a clever girl that she will make the right decision.

    These statements have two parts. One of them is the “reason”, and one of them is the “result”. In these statements, reason comes before result.

    The book, Cinderella, is so interesting that I can finish it in an hour.

    Cinderella is such an interesting book that I can finish it in an hour.

    Cinderella’s stepsisters are so ugly that the prince doesn’t want to dance with them in the party.

    Cinderella’s stepsisters are such ugly girls that the prince doesn’t want to dance with them in the party.

    Steven is so handsome that all the girls at the party want to dance with him.

    Steven is such a handsome boy that all the girls at the party want to dance with him.

    Cinderella’s father was so ill that he couldn’t go to work.

    Cinderella’s father was such an ill man that he couldn’t go to work.

    “such….. that” kullanmak istediğimiz zaman, sadece sıfat değil, bir sıfat tamlaması kullanmamız gerektiğini unutmayalım.

    -In my story, the old witch’s house was made of chocolate ice cream and it was very cool inside. In my story, the children eat so much ice cream that they don’t fit in the witch’s oven. Because of this, the witch can’t cook them. The children give the witch some chocolate ice cream too and she likes it. In my story, the children and the witch become friends and they live happily together ever after.

    What do you think of my story? Do you like it?

    -I don’t like it. I think the children should cook and eat the witch because she is not so fat that she doesn’t fit in the oven. And what happened to the father?

    -I don’t know, I haven’t thought about it yet.

    I like the witch very much. She is a very good cook. She can cook lots of bread, cakes and sugar. She can also cook children. She must be very strong too.

    The witch is tall. She is 22 years old. She has got blonde hair and blue eyes. She has got big ears and a little nose. Her clothes are very new and stylish. She wears a red t-shirt and a blue skirt. Her skirt is the same colour as her eyes. She has got seven fingers on her right hand and six fingers on her left hand.

    So, what do you think of my charachter?

    Unit 11 - Personal Goals

    I love space and other planets. I love them so much that I would like to be an astronaut in the future. I want to get in a space shuttle and go to outer space.

    “would like” kalıbı mana olarak “want” fiili ile hemen hemen aynı şekilde kullanılır. İngilizce konuşurken want yerine would like ifadesini kullanırsak, kendimizi daha kibarca ifade etmiş oluruz.

    Gelecekten beklentilerimizi, hedeflerimizi anlatırken “would like” kalıbını kullanabiliriz. “Want” fiili de benzer şekilde kullanılabilir.

    Which countries would you like to visit?

    I would like to be an astronaut.

    I would like to have a big mansion in the future.

    I would like to be a successful businessman in the future.

    My friend would like to be racer.

    My sisters would like to have a family in the future.

    Paula would like to marry a Japanese man and have Japanese children in the future. Or, she would like to make animation series and she would like to put herself as a chacarter in those animation series..

    I think “Buried life” can be a documentary about archeology. Or, it can be a documentary about people’s unachieved hopes and dreams.

    I would like to be a good, helpful man in the future. I wouldn’t like to be known as a bad person. I would like to be very successful in my job and I would like to be able to help a lot of people. I would like to have a happy home with a happy family too. I would also like to visit different places. I would like to go abroad and visit important cities. I would like to learn about different cultures.

    -Walt Disney had a dream first. Then, he made plans to achieve that dream. “Change your plan. Keep your dream” is a very good saying. He points out the importance of dreams.

    -I’m sorry, I couldn’t understand you. Do you mean the dreams we see at night?

    -No, I mean your personal goals.

    -Oh. I think you’re right.

    If you dream it, you can do it. Because the first step of achievement is having a goal. If you have a goal, then you can reach your goal by working hard. You must make plans to reach your goal. You must try to improve yourself and overcome the problems you face. Every problem has a solution. And don’t forget, dreams are more important than plans. You can change your plans but you mustn’t change your dreams.

    My first goal is to graduate from this school with a good degree. I need to work hard for that. Then, if I achieve my goal, I would like to start another very good school. I will need to work hard in that school too. I would like to have a very good job. I need to have a very good education if I want to have a good job. Then, I would like to start a happy family. To do that, first, I need to be successful in my job.

    Unit 12 - Personality Types

    I am easy going and flexible. I’m good at analytical problem solving too. These are my strenghts.

    My biggest weakness is that I am very bad at social skills. I don’t have communication skills either.

    These are my personal qualities. What about you? What are your personal qualities? Are you a team player? Do you have good communication skills?

    Bazı ingilizce sıfatların zıt anlamlıları, yine bu kelimelerin başlarına “-dis, -im, -ir, -un” gibi ekler eklenerek oluşturulur.

    Important unimportant

    agree disagree

    countable uncountable

    possible impossible

    regular irregular

    Zıt anlamlıyı oluşturma konusunda yani hangi kelimeleri hangi ekler ile zıt anlamlı yapabileceğimiz konusunda belli bir kural yoktur.

    Two strengths of Spotty are that he is hard working and he is friendly. Spotty can sometimes get upset easily. He sometimes misses small details too. Why don’t you write your personal qualities and not Spotty’s personal qualities?

    I am always punctual and often careful. I’m always reliable and responsible. I sometimes am cheerful. I always try to be tactful. I’m not a very neat person, I’m rarely neat. I am rarely organised. I think I’m never sociable but I sometimes am adaptable. I am often hardworking. I am rarely outgoing but I’m always polite. I sometimes am noisy. I am always independent, practical and honest.

    I’m very independent beacuse I don’t like to give information to other people about myself and my activities.

    -I am not sociable. I can’t start a conversation with people I don’t know. I think I don’t like talking to people.

    -You should often try to express yourself to other people. I think you should try harder to start conversations. You will enjoy talking to different people.

    -I think you are right. Thanks for the advice.

    Atakan:I think Murat is really hardworking. He is very disciplined too. This makes him very reliable and responsible. I think Murat can be more cheerful and sociable.

    Merve: Do you think Atakan is right, Murat? Are you hardworking, disciplined, reliable and responsible but not cheerful and sociable?

    Murat: Hmm. I think he is right in my strenghts but I don’t think I’m not sociable. I have many friends and I can make new friends easily too. I agree that my weekness is that I’m not cheerful.

    Murat: You can pay attention and try to be more cheerful. You should smile and laugh more often.

    Atakan: She is right, Murat. It’s not very hard. Just turn that frown upside down.

    Murat: You mean I should smile all the time? For example, should I smile now too?

    Merve: Yeah, why not? You should always have a smile on your face.

    Murat: Ok, I’ll try..

    Atakan and Merve: Very good. Good job!

    I like my sister very much. She is very honest and reliable but she sometimes interrupts people while they are talking. It is very rude to interrupt people. She shouldn’t do that.

    Unit 13 - A Good Language Learner.

    I think I am very good at listening and reading activities. I am not bad at writing and speaking either. I don’t usually have difficulty in understanding a native speaker and I never get stressed while I’m using my language. I am very proud of my English skills.

    Tessa looks to be in a classroom on the countryside. We can see trees and valleys from the window.

    İngilizce ‘de bazı fiillere çeşitli kelimecikler eklenerek, yeni manalar kazandırılmıştır. Bu öbeklere “phrasal verbs” denir. Genellikle verb+preposition olarak iki kelimeden oluşurlar. Daha önce de “get up”, “stand up”, “sit down” gibi öbekler kullandık… Şimdi bunlara benzer farklı örnekleri tanıyarak kelime haznemizi geliştirelim.

    Bu ünitede de “write down”, “put together”, “find out”, “be afraid of”, “look (a word) up”, “put together” gibi örnekler görüyoruz. Bunların anlamlarını tahmin etmek gördüğünüz gibi çok kolay!

    I always try to watch English movies and read English books, but I don’t really plan my language learning. I never look for opportunities to practice speaking and I am afraid of taking risks about my skills. I rarely review the subjects but I try to learn from my mistakes. Do you think I’m a good language learner?

    I don’t have much difficulty learning a new language. I have the most difficulty in speaking and writing because they need a lot of practice.

    I think that learning vocabulary is very important but I think speaking and listening are more important of than vocabulary practice. Combining different skills is the most important key in learning a new language better.

    I believe it’s all right to make mistakes. The teacher never interrupts me. In my opinion, it’s a good way of encouragement for me. Friends shouldn’t correct each other’s errors. When they correct my errors, personally, I feel uncomfortable.

    Learning a language means learning all four skills; reading, writing, listening and speaking. The main aim is to be able to use the language. Let’s think about why people study English. People study a foreign language because they want to be able to communicate with other people. A learner should talk and write easily. Also, a learner should understand the things he or she reads and hears. We should improve all of our skills at the same time.

    -Do you think speaking is more important than other skills?

    -Well, if you want to travel abroad, maybe speaking is more important for you. But generally, I believe that other skills are as important as speaking.

    -Hmm. I think speaking is very important because if you speak a lot with other people, your other skills will improve faster.

    -What I want to say is, listening is as important as speaking because if you can’t understand the words you hear, you can’t speak either.

    -That’s a good point. I believe we should say listening is as important as speaking.

    -Who do you think is the best language learner in this class?

    -I think Frank is the best learner in this class because he watches the movies in English, reads English books and he talks English with his friends.

    -You are right. He can improve his skills easily. What about Hans? He reads a lot of books and he often writes short stories.

    -Is he good at listening and speaking?

    -No, but he is very good at vocabulary.

    -You are right. What should we do?

    -I think we should nominate Frank and Hans. All the class can vote for them and the winner will be the best learner of this class.

    Unit 14 - Precautionary Measures

    I think the picture shows that in the end, global warming will turn the earth into a desert.

    We should protect the nature as a precaution to global warming. We shouldn’t pollute the environment. We can try to use less electricity and less water. We must use less energy in our lives.

    We must recycle too.

    -How can I use solar energy?

    -We can use solar power for our hot water and heating. You can buy solar energy panels for your house.

    -How can I reduce pollution caused by cars?

    -You can use other methods of travel. You can walk short distances and use public transport for long distances.

    -How can I use less electric energy?

    -You can turn off lights when you go out of a room. You can turn the air conditioning down in summers too.

    -What do the three Rs mean?

    -They mean reduce, reuse and recyle.

    These words remind me of the summer holiday.

    “Remind (somebody) of” kalıbının manası, bir kişiye (somebody) bir şeyi hatırlatmaktır.

    İngilizce ifadelerde bazen “in case” yapısı kullanılır. In case, alınacak önlemi ifade eder. Türkçede ” ne olur ne olmaz, …olması halinde ” anlamlarına gelir.

    Burada gerçekleşme ihtimali az olan kötü bir olaydan bahsedilir ve bu olayın önlemi söylenir.

    You should call me in case a bad thing happens.

    Call me in case somewthing bad happens.

    Call the police in case there is an emergency.

    Take a wide hat in case it is sunny.

    Daha önce “so …….. that” şeklinde araya bir sıfat da koyarak amaç bildirmeyi öğrenmiştik. Buradaki “so that” kavramı ise, anlam olarak biraz daha farklıdır. “so that” kalıbı, “in order to” kalıbı gibi amaç bildirerek iki cümleciği bağlar. Çoğu zaman da bağlanan cümleler ile alınan önlemin sonuncu anlatılmış olur.

    I am studying hard so I that can pass my test.

    I went home as fast as I could in order to watch that show.

    I went home as fast as I could so that I could watch that show.

    Use sun cream so that you can protect your skin.

    Take a wide hat in case it is sunny. (güneşli olursa diye)

    “So that” ifadesiyle ise, önlem alarak elde edeceğimiz faydayı bildiririz.

    Use sun cream so that you can protect your skin. (cildini güneşten koruyabilesin diye)

    Take an umbrella in case it is rainy.

    Take an umbrella so that you won’t be wet.

    Use a beach umbrella in case it is sunny.

    Ue a beach umbrella so that you can protect your skin.

    plant trees

    save money.

    Global warming is a very serious issue. We should take precautions to prevent global warming.

    Here are some sensible precautions. We can help the environment with these precautions.

    First of all, try to use everything sensibly. If you don’t need it, don’t buy it. If you don’t need it, don’t use it. We must try to use less energy. For example, we must turn off the lights when we get out of a room so that we can save energy. We must try to use less water too.

    We should try to travel efficiently. We don’t have to drive everywhere, we can walk short distances. We must use fuel efficiently in case we must use our cars. We must also try to use less paper.

    It is very important to reuse and recycle. We should collect materials like plastic, metal, glass and paper and recycle them.

    We shouldn’t harm the nature. We should try to preserve the environment so that we can prevent global warming. We can do these precautions easily and they are very important.

    We can apply these precautions in our daily lives. Everybody has to do their part to prevent global warming.

    Use everything sensibly so that you won’t waste anything.

    We must turn off the lights when we get out of a room so that we can save energy.

    We must travel efficiently so that we can save energy.

    We must use fuel efficiently in case we must use our cars.

    I will take an umbrella in case it is rainy.

    I will take sunglases so that I can protect my eyes from UV rays.

    I will take some books so that we can read them when we are bored.

    I will take a waterproof tent in case it is rainy at nights.

    Unit 15 - Preferences

    İngilizce konuşurken iki şey arasındaki tercihimizi anlatmayı öğrenelim:

    I prefer an apple to a banana. He prefers chocolate to a candy. We prefer dogs to cats as pets. They prefer sunny weather to rainy weather. Verdiğimiz örneklerde “tercih etmek” manasında olan prefer fiilinden sonra iki nesne kullandık. Bu iki nesneden ilkini, ikincisine tercih ettiğimizi, yani ilkini ikincisinden daha çok istediğimizi anlatmış oluyoruz. Şimdi de prefer fiilinin bir başka kullanımını izah edelim. I prefer playing football to basketball. He prefers going to the zoo to the park. You prefer walking to riding a bike. Verdiğimiz bu örneklerde ise, prefer fiilinden sonra “-ing” eklenmiş fiil kullandık. Böylece iki eylemden hangisini tercih ettiğimizi anlatmış oluyoruz. Yine bu iki eylemden ilkini ikincisinden daha çok istediğimizi anlatmış oluyoruz. Dikkat etmemiz gereken noktalar:

    Prefer yüklem ise, sonrasında da başka bir eylem anlatmak istiyorsak, fiili “-ing” ile kullanmalıyız.

    Karşılaştırmak istediğimiz iki eylem arasına yine to koymalıyız.

    İlk örnekte gördüğümüz gibi eğer iki eylemi de ortak fiil ile ifade edeceksek, (playing football, playing basketball) “to” sözcüğünden sonra ikinci dafa aynı fiili yazmaya gerek yoktur. Türkçe’de de buna benzer kullanımlar görürüz.

    I prefer playing football to playing basketball. I prefer playing football to basketball. I prefer football to basketball. Bu üç kullanım da doğrudur. İlk iki cümle, tamamen aynı manaya gelir. (futbol oynamayı tercih ederim) Üçüncü cümlenin anlamı ise daha geniştir. (futbolu tercih ederim. (Sadece oynamak için değil, her konuda)) She prefers a pizza menu to a hamburger menu. She prefers pop music to classical music and she prefers chatting with friends to reading a book. She prefers Spanish to French for Language Class. She prefers coffee to tea. She prefers cycling to walking.

    We made holiday plans with my family. We are going to go to Antalya for our holiday this year. I like swimming on holiday. I also like climbing mountins. There are many mountains in Antalya.

    “like” fiilinden sonra bir eylem bildireceğimiz zaman da fiile “-ing” ekleyerek kullanırız. Bu şekilde, bahsettiğimiz eylemi yapmaktan hoşlandığımızı söyleriz. I like swimming and I like climbing mountains. I like eating ice cream. Do you like eating ice cream too?

    “Would rather” ifadesi ise, seçim belirtir. İki seçenek arasındaki tercihi belirtmek için “than” kelimesi ile birlikte kullanılır. -Why don’t we go out for a walk? -I would rather stay at home. I would rather have a cold drink than going out in this hot weather. I would rather be on the beach than work in the office. Hem “rather” hem de “than” kelimelerinden sonra fiil yalın olarak gelmelidir. I would rather go to Bodrum with you than stay here and work. Aunt Carole has two choices. She can go to Bodrum or she can stay here and work. She prefers going to Bodrum. I would rather go to Bodrum with you than go there alone. Tessa has two choices. She can go to Bodrum with her aunt or she can go to Bodrum alone. She prefers going with her aunt. “Would rather” ile de, “prefer” ile de iki eylem arasındaki tercihimizi bildirebiliriz. Mana olarak aralarında çok fark yoktur. Kullanım olarak ise, “prefer” den sonra fiili “-ing” ekiyle kullanırız. Belirttiğimiz iki şık arasına “to” kelimesini koymalıyız. “Would rather” dan sonra fiili yalın olarak kullanırız. Belirttiğimiz iki şık arasına “than” kelimesini koymalıyız. I would prefer going to Bodrum to staying here. I would rather go to Bodrum than stay here. Tessa prefers dancing contests to song contests but her aunt prefers song contests. She prefers visiting museums to doing shopping but her aunt prefers doing shopping. She would rather visit museums than do shopping but her aunt would rather do shopping.

    -Which of these weekend programmes are you interested in Aunt Carole? -I think I like Programme B because I would rather go on a boat cruise than have a trip to historical places. I also prefer trekking to sightseeing What about you? Would you you prefer trekking? -I don’t think so. I am interested in Programme A because I would rather see the Castle of St. Peter. -Hmm. What shall we do then? -Let’s take the trip to historical places Aunt Carole, I know you would love Pamukkale. -That’s a good idea, but I would rather have a boat tour than see the Archeological Sites. Why don’t we join the Programme B? I think you can see those sights while we are trekking. -Maybe, but I don’t like Turkish folk dances. I would rather see the Turkish night than see the Turkish folk dances. -Why don’t we ask the hotel manager?

    I’m going to get up early this Sunday and watch cartoons on TV. Then, I am going to have breakfast with my family. Later we can go on a trip altogether but I would rather play with my friends than go on a trip with my family. In the afternoon, I’m going to watch the race on TV. After the race, I’m going to go to a party in the evening.

    I think I prefer the activities on Thursday because they are more exciting than the activities on Wednesday. I prefer parasailing to trekking. I have never seen a Traditional Turkish Wedding Ceremony. I would rather see it than go to the disco. I would rather take the Blue Voyage than make a trip to Gümbet but I think the rest of the activities in Thursday are better.

    Unit 16 - Emphaty

    I want to start university after high school because I want to have a good education and I enjoy learning new things. I need some money to go to a university. I am planning to get a job in summer after I finish school so that I can earn some money for university.

    I think good friends can understand each other easily but it’s not easy to understand some people. I am pleased with my relationships with my friends. We get along very well with them. I think we can understand each other quite well.

    My friend said that putting paper, plastic and glass items into different bins to be recycled is nonsense. I don’t agree to my friend’s idea. I think he doesn’t understand what recycling is. I believe that we should start a campaign at school for informing everyone about recycling. If you ask me, everyone should seperate those materials. It is the easiest and the most efficient way to recycle. It is not possible to seperate those materials easily if we put them in the same garbage bins.

    Empathy is a very important concept. Empathy is trying to understand other people. Everybody should try to understand others.

    The message of the story is that emphaty is very important. We can think that we are right all the time, but it is important to look at the events from another perspective too. We can find the truth easily we try do understand other people but we can’t find the truth if we don’t make empathy.

    I think my friends and family usually understand me but sometimes, I can’t make myself clear. Sometimes they misunderstand me but I can make myself clear if I choose my words carefully.

    A month ago, we were going to meet with a friend. We decided a location to meet. He misunderstood me and went somewhere else. In the end, we couldn’t meet on time. We lost a few hours.

    -How was your last Maths exam Jimmy?

    -It wasn’t good mum. I think I failed.

    -Oh Jimmy, why don’t you study hard? I think you can get better grades if youstudy harder.

    -But I study very hard mum.

    -If you study hard, then why are your grades so low?

    -I don’t know mum, I study very hard. I try to do everything I can but I can’t manage to be successful.

    -Why not?

    -I think I can’t understand the teacher very well.

    -Why don’t you learn from your books?

    -The books are very hard. I need some help with them too.

    -Why didn’t you tell me or your father about this?

    -I was scared. I thought you would shout at me!

    -I can imagin that it was hard for you! Ok Jimmy, from now on, let’s study together. I think you can get higher grades if we study together.

    -Do you really think so?

    -Absolutely!

    -Thank you mum. I’m glad that you understand me.

    -Our team has lost the game tonight!

    -Oh dear! Really?

    -I’ve got a very good mark from the Maths test!

    -Congratulations! Well done!

    -I’ve just won the lottery!

    -How wonderful!

    -I saw a ghost last night!

    -That’s frightening!

    -I missed the bus and I had to walk home this evening. I’m very tired!

    -Poor you!

    I think the statement is correct. I agree to the statement. Empathy prevents bad things. We need to make empathy so that we won’t make sympathy.

  • Unit 1 - Lesson 1 - School Life

    There isn’t an exchange student in this class but there is an exchange student in the tenth class.

    -Hello, My name is İlhan, What’s your name?

    -Hi, İlhan. I’m Cem.

    -Where are you from Cem?

    -I’m from Konya. And you?

    -I’m from Nevşehir.

    -Nice to meet you.

    -Nice to meet you too.

    My name is Jack. I’m from France and I speak French.

    Jack is French.

    Hirotaka is Japanese. He lives in Tokyo.

    I want to go to the USA.

    The Germans are very good in engineering.

    There are twelve students in our class.

    There are a hundred and twenty fingers of the students.

    There are fifteen pencils and thirty notebooks in the classroom.

    There is a blackboard in our classroom.

    There is an over head projector in the clasroom. It is also called an ohp. (tepegöz)

    Our class is very small because I have got only eleven classmates. Our class is very hot in summer.

    We sit on chairs in our class. Those chairs are very uncomfortable.

    There is air conditioning in my dream class.

    There are comfortable chairs in my dream class.

    The poster is about rules for students in classrooms.

    Sit down in the classroom and don’t stand up.

    Don’t run in the corridors.

    İngilizce konuşma dilinde çok sık kullandığımız “and” kelimesi olumlu cümlelerdeki iki farklı öğeyi birbirine bağlar. Türkçede “ve” anlamındadır.

    “or” kelimesini ise olumsuz cümlelerdeki iki öğeyi bağlamak için kullanırız. “veya” anlamındadır.

    I’m good at English and History.

    I’m not good at Maths or Music.

    -Are you good at Geometry?

    -Yes I am very good at Geometry but my favourite lesson is Maths. What’s your favourite ones?

    -My favourites are Chemistry and Biology. I am good at Phyiscs too. Are you good at these?

    -No, I’m not good at Chemistry, Biology of Physics.

    Unit 1 - Lesson 2 - Family Life

    There are six people in the picture. There are six people in Selin’s family.

    Tolga and Selim are his brothers and Helin is her sister.

    My name is Diana. I am thirteen years old. This is my family tree. I haven’t got a big family. There are eight people in my family.

    I have got a brother. His name is Joe.He is twenty years old. He is a web designer.

    My mother’s name is Mary. She is thirty-nine years old. She is a housewife.

    My father’s name is George. He is thirty-nine too. He is a policeman.

    Joe and I have got an uncle. Our uncle’s name is Thomas. He is forty-two years old. Uncle Thomas is my father’s brother.

    We have got an aunt too. Her name is Lisa. She is thirty years old. She is a doctor.

    My grandparents’s names are Mark and Jane. Mark is my grandfather. He is sixty-five years old and he is a lawyer. Jane is my grandmother. She is sixty-two years old.

    I love my family.

    İsimlerin sonuna “‘s” ekleyerek sahiplik bildirebiliriz, yani “bir şeyin o isme ait olduğunu”anlatırız.

    This is my mother’s purse.

    The big one is Ayhan’s house.

    Leman’s dog’s name is Boris.

    That man’s house is next to the post office.

    These are Hande’s books.

    Is your father’s name Hakan?

    -What’s your father’s name?

    -His name is Süleyman.

    -What’s your mother’s name?

    -She is Leyla.

    -Have you got any sisters and brothers?

    -I’ve got a sister, her name is Ayşe. I haven’t got a brother.

    -Have you got an aunt?

    -No.

    -Have you got an uncle?

    -I’ve got two uncles. Their names are İlyas and Güven.

    -Have you got grandparents?

    -Yes, Yusuf is my grandfather’s name and Esra is my grandmother’s name.

    -Let’s draw your family tree.

    2aile

    My hair is dark.

    Red Blue Orange Green

    Purple Black Gray Pink

    Yellow Brown White

    Jimmy is short. He isn’t tall. He is slim and he’s not very handsome. He has got brown eyes, and short black hair.

    Sue is very tall and fat. She’s got green eyes and fair hair.

    This looks like a picture of an internet page.

    My mother is very tall. She’s got blue eyes and long black hair. She is very slim.

    My mother is short and very fat. He’s got blue eyes and he hasn’t got any hair.

    My brother is short and slim. He’s very handsome. He’s got curly black hair and green eyes.

    My room is blue.

    in

    on

    in front of

    next to

    near

    between

    Bu kelimeciklerin ingilizce cümlelere kattığı anlamı anlamaya çalışalım.

    There is a dog in the garden.

    There are cups on the table.

    There is a cat next to the tree.

    The tree is near the street.

    My friend’s house is between the school and the supermarket.

    Sırasıyla “içinde”, “üstünde”, “önünde”, “bitişiğinde”, “yanında” ve “ortasında” manaları katarlar.

    Bunlara “prepositions” denir. Bunlardan başka benzer preposition sözcükleri de vardır.

    “at” sözcüğü, bir diğer çok sık kullanılan preposition dır. Bir mekanda, belli bir noktada manasını verir.

    My mother is at home now.

    The girl is at the bus stop.

    There’s an oven next to the cupboards. There are two chairs next to the table. There’s a bed in front of the window. One of the chairs is on the carpet.

    Unit 1 - Lesson 3 - Social Life

    It’s a birthday party. It’s Amy’s brother’s birthday tomorrow. He’s twelve years old.

    Five people’s birthdays are in February. Sam’s, my father’s, my mother’s, Cathy’s and Paul’s birthdays are in February.

    -When is your mother’s birthday?

    -It’s on Monday the twenty-third.

    -What time is the party?

    -It’s at 7 pm.

    Günler, Aylar ve Tarih Okuma konumuza buradan,

    İngilizce Sayılar konumuza buradan ulaşabilirsiniz.

    -When is the lesson?

    -It’s on Tuesday and Friday.

    -What time are the lessons?

    -It’s at 10 am on Tuesday and half past eleven on Friday.

    RSVP means “répondez s’il vous plaît”. It’s in French. It means “please respond”

    The party in Elm street is in the evening. It’s at 8:30 pm.

    Joe is twelve. His birthday party is on Sunday at 8 pm.

    New Year party is in Bell Road.

    My adress is Selvi street, No:29 Şişli.

    -Are you free tomorrow?

    -Yes, I think I’m free tomorrow.

    -Can you come to my party?

    -Yes, certainly.

    -Can you plan the menu too?

    -Sure, I can.

    -Can you do the shopping for me?

    -I’m afraid I can’t. I’m too tired.

    He can buy decorations and hats from that shop.

    There are ten hats in two packets and they are five pounds.

    The receipt is five pounds.

    -What are those?

    -They are balloons.

    -How many balloons ar there in a packet?

    -There are fifteen ballons in that packet.

    -I need two packets please.

    -That is fifty cents.

    -Here’s a pound.

    -And here’s your change. Thank you.

    -Bye.

    I think the girl in picture is Lisa.

    -The supermarket here. How can I help you?

    -Hi. I need a large cake, with extra chocolate.

    -Okay, do you need anything else?

    -Yes, I need two liters of orange juice.

    -Anything else?

    -No.

    -That is twenty-three pounds. What’s your adress?

    -742 Evergreen Terrace.

    -Ok, thank you for calling.

    Unit 2 - Lesson 1 - Daily Routine

    He is a sportsman. He is very tall. I think he is a basketballer.

    Şimdi geniş zamanı ifade etmeyi öğreneceğiz. Geniş zaman, yani “simple present tense” ile sürekli yaptığımız eylemleri anlatırız.

    1. tekil ve çoğul şahıslarda (yani isim cümlelerinde “am” ve “are” ile kullandığımız şahıslarda) fiil yalın hali ile kullanılır.

    3. tekil şahıslarda (yani isim cümlelerinde yardımcı fiil olarak “is” kullandığımız şahıslarda) ise, fiilin sonuna “-s” eki getirilir.

    My friend works in Ankara. He goes to Ankara every Monday and stays in his house in Ankara on weekdays. At the weekends, he returns to Eskişehir and he stays with his mother.

    The girl does her homework after school. She watches tv after she finishes her homework.

    Sıklık ifade etmek için en çok “always, usually, often, sometimes, never” gibi ifadeleri kullanırız.

    İngilizce dilbilgisinde sıklık bildiren ifadelerin, geniş zaman ile kullanıldıklarına sık sık rastlarız.

    I always brush my teeth after meals.

    He usually plays football after school.

    She sometimes visits her grandmother.

    They never go for a drive after dinner.

    I never go to work on Sundays.

    I often play football with my friends.

    I always do my homework after school.

    I always eat lunch at noon and I sometimes go shopping with my mother.

    -What’s your daily routine? What do you do in the morning everyday?

    -I get up at half past seven everyday. I make my bed and get dressed. Then I wash my face and have breakfast. I have breakfast at a quarter to eight. Then I leave home for school at ten past eight. What about you?

    I love sports. I like cycling, I like table tennis and I like football.

    Sevdiğimiz şeylerden bahsederken “like” fiilini kullanırız. Sevmediğimiz şeylerden bahsederken ise “dislike” fiilini kullanırız. Ayrıca bunun yerine “don’t like” da diyebiliriz.

    I like tea.

    I like milk.

    I don’t like coke.

    I like chicken. I don’t like hamburger.

    En çok dikkat etmemiz gereken şey şudur; Eğer cümlenin öznesi “o” ise, yani 3. tekil şahıs ise fiilin sonuna “-s” eki eklenmelidir.

    I like painting.

    He likes fishing.

    I dislike reading a story.

    Mary dislikes swimming.

    Olumsuz halde 3. tekil şahıs için “doesn’t” kullanılır.

    I don’t like going for a walk.

    She doesn’t like cycling.

    Unutmayalım, “-s” eklenmesi için öznenin hem tekil olması, hem de 3. şahıs olması lazım. “ben” veya “sen” özne olursa “-s” kullanılmaz!

    Ten students like playing basketball but three students dislike it.

    I like playing basketball and playing chess.

    Sevdiğimiz iki şeyi sıralarken araya “and” yazmalıyız. “and”, “ve” manasına gelir.

    I like kebab and salad.

    Sevmediğimiz iki şeyi sıralarken ise araya “or” yazılır. “or”, “veya” manasına gelir.

    I don’t like carrot or lettuce.

    Sevdiğimiz bir şeyi söyledikten hemen sonra, başka birşeyi sevmediğimizi söyleyecek olursak, araya “but” yazmalıyız. “but”, “fakat” manasına gelir.

    I like oranges but I don’t like bananas.

    -Do you like orange juice?

    -Yes I like orange juice. veya -Yes, I do veya -Yes.

    -Do you like cheese?

    -No, I don’t like cheese veya -No, I don’t veya -No.

    -Do you like chocolate?

    -Yes, I like chocolate very much. I like cakes very much too but I don’t like pudding.

    Sevdiğimiz veya sevmediğimiz eylemlerden, aktivitelerden bahsetmek için de “like” veya “don’t like” kullanabiliriz. Eylemlerden bahsetmek için fiil kullanırız. “like” ve “don’t like” tan sonra fiil kullanacağımız zaman fiilin sonuna “-ing” ekleyerek kullanmalıyız.

    I like dancing and listening to music.

    I don’t like playing football.

    I don’t like skating but I like cycling.

    Çok sevdiğimiz şeyleri “love” kelimesini kullanarak anlatabiliriz. “like” kelimesinden daha kuvvetli bir ifade sağlar.

    I love playing computer games.

    I love watching TV.

    Nefret ettiğimiz şeyleri ise “hate” kelimesini kullanarak anlatabiliriz. “don’t like” kelimesinden daha kuvvetli bir ifade sağlar.

    I hate reading newspapers.

    I hate playing chess.

    I like eating ice cream and I love chocolate ice cream.

    I love drawing pictures.

    I don’t like walking and I hate running.

    I play computer games in my free times. I have got a hobby too. I collect stamps for my hobby. My hobby is collecting stamps.

    “Can” sözcüğü, cümleye “yapabilir” anlamı katar. Becerilerimizi “can” kelimesiyle anlatabiliriz.

    I can swim.

    My father can drive a truck.

    I can run fast.

    -Can you play table tennis?

    -Yes, I can

    Olumsuz yapmak için “can” yerine “can’t” deriz. Böylece cümleye “yapamaz” anlamı katmış oluruz.

    -Can you play the piano?

    -No, I can’t

    I can’t talk Chinese.

    I can’t swim.

    I have got a baby brother. He is one year old. He can’t speak. He can’t run. He can’t jump.

    I can jump but my brother can’t.

    I can talk but my brother can’t.

    My friend can swim very fast but I can’t.

    My friend and I can play table tennis.

    Soru haline getirmek için “can”i cümlenin başına getiririz.Unutmayalım ki, yüklem olan fiil yalın halde kullanılmalıdır.

    -Can you ride a bicycle?

    -Yes I can.

    -Can you drive a car?

    -No I can’t, but my father can.

    -Can a rabbit run fast?

    -Yes it can.

    -Can it fly too?

    -No, it can’t fly.

    I can’t cook very well but I can play tennis. I can’t sing well and I can’t play the guitar. I can’t dive but I can swim. I can ski too.

    My friend can cook but she can’t play tennis. My friend can sing well and she can play the guitar. She can’t dive and she can’t swim. My friend can ski too.

    My hobbies are playing table tennis and cycling. I am good at table tennis and I am very good at cycling.

    -I can swim very well but I can’t run 500 meters. I can play the piano but I’m not good at it. I can play volleyball and I can walk like a duck but I can’t cook a meal. I can speak German.

    -Can you sing or play the guitar?

    -No, I can’t sing or play the guitar.

    “Can” kelimesinin kullanımı ile ilgili özet bilgi böyledir…

    -Can you drive a car?

    -Do you walk to school every day?

    -Do you go to high school?

    -Can you climb a tree?

    -Do you live with your family?

    -Do you watch TV everyday?

    -Do you study hard?

    -Can you use a computer?

    -Do you play games on your computer?

    None of my friends can drive a car.

    Some of my friends walk to school every day.

    All of my friends go to high school.

    Ten of my friends live with their families.

    Six of my friends can climb a tree.

    Bu cümlelerde “none, some, all” gibi kelimeleri miktar belirteci olarak kullandık. “All” tamamı, “none” hiçbiri manalarına gelir. “some” ise, tam olarak belli olmayan bir miktarı “birkaç, biraz” şeklinde ifade eder.

    I know main events of Atatürk’s life. He opens the Turkish Grand National Assembly on April twenty-third of nineteen twenty.

    We celebrate Republic Day on October 29th every year. We organise ceremonies and parades on that day. The soldiers make a parade on avenues. Students join the parade too. Children read poems and students sing and dance in the ceremonies.

    Unit 2 - Lesson 2 - Activities

    I love the sea and I can swim very well.

    I think it’s summer because it’s very hot. The girls’s mother doesn’t want them to go to the beach because it is dangerous to go to the beach at noon. It is not healthy to swim after a big meal because you feel tired after a meal.

    Don’t stay under the sun for too long.

    Wear a swimsuit at the beach.

    Don’t light a fire at the beach.

    Don’t go in the water if it is too wavy.

    Don’t go in the water alone.

    They look out the window and see the sea. They decide to escape and go to the beach. Then, they decide to eat lunch in a cafe. They eat a big meal. Then they walk to the beach. They swim at first but they feel a pain in their legs and stomachs. They go out of the sea and lie on the beach and sleep. Then, they get sunburnt and very ill.

    Don’t harm the environment at the camp.

    Be careful with the fire.

    Always share your food.

    Don’t forget to clean up after you eat your meal.

    Put out the fire after you eat.

    Don’t shout too much at the stadium.

    Don’t swear, don’t tell bad words.

    Don’t disturb others.

    Don’t drop litter in the stadium.

    Don’t throw anyting to the field.

    I can give advice to my friends. I can try to help them with their problems. I can talk to them.

    Birisine herhangi bir konuda tavsiye vermek için ingilizce günlük konuşmalarda da sıkça rastladığımız, ” should ” ile “shouldn’t ” kelimelerini kullanırız.

    Bu kelimeler cümleye “yapmalısın” veya “yapmamalısın” şeklinde tavsiye manası katıyor.

    You should brush your teeth every day.

    You should eat a lot of vegetables.

    It is rainy today. We should take an umbrella.

    Ahmet and Ali are very tired. They should rest.

    I should study hard.

    Birisine birşey yapmamasını tavsiye etmek için “shouldn’t” kullanırız. “shouldn’t”, “should not” kelimelerinin kısaltılmış halidir. Her iki şekilde de kullanılabilir.

    You should not talk in the classroom.

    We shouldn’t drop litter on the street.

    We shouldn’t take any medicine without seeing a doctor.

    It is rainy today. We should not go out without our raincoats.

    You should practice a lot.

    You should go on a diet.

    You should go to a dentist.

    “Must” ve “mustn’t” kelimeleri ise kuralları anlatır. “Must” yapmak zorunda olduğumuz, “mustn’t” ise yapmamak zorunda olduğumuz şeyleri anlatır. Anlam olarak “must” ile kurulan cümleler, “should” ile kullanılanlardan çok daha serttir.

    I feel bad. I must go to a doctor.

    I must go to the bank today because I haven’t got any money in my pocket.

    They must pass this test or they will not pass this lesson.

    You must wear sports shoes.

    You mustn’t eat in the gym.

    You mustn’t drink in the gym.

    You mustn’t drop weights on the floor.

    These rules are necessary because everyone should enjoy the gym.

    Squash is a similar game to tennis. You must have rackets to play squash. You play it in a room and you hit the ball with your racket and try to hit the walls with the ball. I think it is an interesting game. It is very enjoyable.

    “Can” kelimesi ile becerileri ifade ettiğimizi öğrenmiştik. Bu kelimeyi farklı manalarda da kullanabiliriz. Mesela, mümkün olan, veya olmayan durumları ifade etmek için de “can” kullanabiliriz.

    I can help you with your maths homework. I am good at maths.

    I can’t lend you any money because I don’t have much.

    İhtimal bildirmek için de “can” kullanılabilir.

    I have some free time tonight. I can go to a movie with you.

    Bazen de izin istemek ve izin vermek için kullanırız:

    Can I make a call with your phone?

    Can my friend come over after school?

    All students can go outside after the test.

    You can’t play with your friend after school.

    beceri “ability”

    I can ride a bicycle.

    ihtimal “possibility”

    I can come to your house this evening.

    izin isteme “request”

    Can I have a glass of water?

    izin vermek “permission”

    You can leave the classroom.

    John wants to play squash wih Jane. Jane wants to play at City Sports Center. John wants to play at the gymnasium but it can be closed on Sunday.

    Jane can’t go on Friday because she must go to the dentist’s.

    Jane’s sister can get Jane’s car on Sunday.

    -Hi, Jason. Are you free this evening. Can we ride bicycles at the big park this evening?

    -I’m afraid we can’t. I must study tonight. I have got a Maths exam tomorrow.

    -Okay, what about tomorrow evening? Can we go then?

    -Sure. We’ll meet at the park tomorrow evening.

    -That’s great. See you later.

    -Goodbye.

    There are photographs of Anıtkabir in the picture. The dialog can be about Anıtkabir.

    I like going to museums. There are a lot of museums in this city. I often visit them.

    Unit 3 - Lesson 1 - Holiday Plans

    Bu ünitede gelecek zamandan bahsetmeyi öğreneceğiz.

    En çok kullandığımız gelecek zaman anlatma yöntemlerinden biri “be going to” ifadesidir. Yani planlarımızı bu tabirler ile anlatırız. “Be” yerine, “am, is, are” dan uygun olanını seçmeliyiz.

    I am going to go to Antalya this summer.

    He is going to call me this evening.

    They are going to go to the cinema tomorrow.

    Soru yapmak için “am, is, are” başa alınmalıdır. Ayrıca negatif yapmak için de “am not, isn’t, aren’t” kullanılabilir.

    -Is she going to go to the USA first?

    -Yes, she is. She is going to fly to the USA tomorrow.

    -Is she going to go on a business trip?

    -No she isn’t going to go on a business trip, she is going to go on a world tour.

    -How many countries is she going to visit?

    -She is going to visit four countries.

    -Is she going to travel by bus?

    -No, she’s going to travel by plane.

    -Why is she going to go to Paris?

    -She is going to see the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

    Martin envies Susan because Suzan likes travelling a lot.

    -Where are you going to go this summer, Pelin?

    -I’m going to go to the USA.

    -Really? Are you going to go there for vacation?

    -Yes, I’m going to go to Florida because I want to swim in the ocean. There are many beaches in Florida.

    -Wow, you’re very lucky. What else are you going to do in the USA?

    -I’m going to visit many cities. I am going to go to the Disneyland park too.

    -I envy you, Pelin. I love the Disneyland park. Could you do me a favour and send me pictures of the park?

    -I don’t have a camera. I can send you a lot of pictures if I can borrow your camera. May I borrow it?

    -Sure!

    I’m going to go to Florida because I want to swim in the ocean.

    I’m going to go to Florida to swim in the ocean.

    I going to go to the supermarket because I want to buy some milk.

    I going to go to the supermarket to buy some milk.

    Bu şekilde, “to” kullanarak biri, diğerinin amacını bildiren iki cümleyi bağlamış oluruz.

    She’s going to attend a social club to meet new friends.

    Suzan is going to go to a shop to do some shopping. After that, she’s going to visit a travel office to plan a city tour. Then, she’s going to go to the Statue of Liberty to take pictures and videos. Finally, she’s going to sit in a cafe and rest.

    I like writing e-mails because I can send messages easily to my friends. My friends send me funny e-mails too. I enjoy reading them.

    The postcard from İstanbul is positive. The others are negative because it’s too cold in the icy land, the food is awful at the national park and the beach in Copacabana is too crowded.

    Dear friends,

    We are in Florida now.

    It is very hot here. We are sweating very much but the sea is wonderful. We go swimming every day. Our hotel is very good. There is an air conditon in our room. Our room is very cool. We are having a great time!

    I am going to be back in a week. See you then!

    Lots of love.

    Tolga

    Şimdi de karşılaştırma yapmayı öğrenelim.

    Planes are more comfortable than buses.

    Trains are cheaper than planes.

    Selim is 15 years old. Veli is 13 years old.

    Selim is older than Veli.

    Bu cümleleri incelersek, “Selim ‘in, Veli’den daha yaşlı olduğu” manasını anlarız. Bu yönteme “comperative” deriz. Bu yöntem ile, iki nesneden “daha üstün” olanını gösteririz.

    That tree is longer than our house!

    The soup in the green bowl is hotter than the other.

    Comperative ile iki ismi şöyle kıyaslarız:

    özne (1. isim) yüklem

    sıfat veya zarfın

    comparative hali

    than nesne (2. isim)

    My bicycle is newer than your bicycle.

    Genellikle, comperative yapmak için sıfata “-er” eklenir. Uzun kelimelere ise, ek koymak yerine comperative yapmak için için önlerine “more” eklenir.

    Şimdi en sık kullanılan sıfatların comperative hallerini tablomuzda gösterelim.

    adjective

    comperative

    superlative

    Çoğu kısa sıfata comperative yapmak için “-er”, superlative için “-est” ekleriz.

    old

    fast

    tall

    small

    high

    hard

    great

    older

    faster

    taller

    smaller

    higher

    harder

    greater

    oldest

    fastest

    tallest

    smallest

    highest

    hardest

    greatest

    Bazı sıfatlarda ses uyumundan dolayı biraz farklı kullanımlar görülebilir.

    safe

    nice

    large

    safer

    nicer

    larger

    safest

    nicest

    largest

    busy

    pretty

    funny

    busier

    prettier

    funnier

    busiest

    prettiest

    funniest

    big

    hot

    bigger

    hotter

    biggest

    hottest

    Uzun kelimelerin başına comperative için “more”,

    superlative için “most” eklenir.

    important

    expensive

    difficult

    carefully

    more important

    more expensive

    more difficult

    more carefully

    most important

    most expensive

    most difficult

    most carefully

    Düzensiz bazı sıfat ve zarflar

    good

    bad

    little

    much/many

    better

    worse

    less

    more

    best

    worst

    least

    most

    İstanbul is the busiest city in Türkiye.

    Motorbikes are faster than bikes but motorbikes are more dangerour than bikes. Cars are safer than bikes and motorbikes. Cars are also faster than bikes and motorbikes.

    Bikes are cheaper than motorbikes but riding a bike is harder than riding a motorbike.

    -My home town is huge city. It has a population of twelve million. There are more people in this city than other cities in Türkiye. It is a very old city. It is older than a lot of cities.

    -Well, my home town is a small town. There are only five thousand people in my home town. It isn’t an old city. Your home town is older than mine.

    -Are you going to go on holiday this year Sam?

    -Yes, I’m going to go to Ankara for my holiday.

    -When are you going to go?

    -I’m going to go next week.

    -How long are you going to stay there?

    -I’m going to stay there for ten days.

    -Where are you going to stay?

    -I’m going to stay with my friend. His father has a house in Ankara.

    -Do you have any plans? What are you going to do in Ankara?

    -I am going to do sightseeing in Ankara. I am going to visit museums and parks there with my friend.

    -That’s very good, you’re going to have a good time.

    -What about you?

    -Well, I think I’m going to visit Bodrum this summer. I am going to see the Underwater Archeology Museum. I am going to swimming every day. I am going to stay in a cheap pension. I am going to go next month and I’m going to stay for two weeks.

    -Very good. I want to go to Bodrum too. Can we go together next year?

    -Of course.

    A man is walking in the street. There is a hole in front of him, but he isn’t aware of the hole. He is going to fall .

    A girl is reading a book. She is studying very hard. She’s going to get a high mark.

    There are clouds in the sky. They are black clouds. It is going to rain.

    -What is that girl doing?

    -She’s riding a bicycle. There is a hole in front of her but she doesn’t see it.

    -What is going to happen?

    -I think she is going to go into the hole and fall down.

    -Why isn’t she stopping?

    -Because she is going very fast.

    -Who is going to help him?

    -The other man is going to help him.

    -Is he going to burn the food in picture 1?

    -No, he isn’t going to burn the food because he isn’t cooking. He is eating.

    -What’s happening in picture 2?

    -He is going to give her a present.

    -Is the man carrying some plates in picture 3?

    -Yes, but he is going to drop the plates.

    -What do you think of picture 4?

    -She is going to miss the bus.

    -Is the woman in picture 5 very fat?

    -No, she is going to have a baby.

    -May I borrow your dictionary?

    -Of course, here you are!

    -It is too hot here. May I open the window?

    -Sure.

    -I am very bored. May I go home?

    -Of course, but if you wait for ten minutes, we can go together.

    -May I have a plate of rice please?

    -I’m sorry but we don’t have any rice left today.

    İngilizce konuşurken “May I…” kalıbını kullanarak nazikçe istekte bulunuruz.

    I usually ask my sister for help at home. She is older than me and she is very smart. She is good at answering my questions.

    Unit 2 - Lesson 3 - Spending a Day

    I don’t like lions very much. I think they are scary.

    Bu ünitede şimdiki zamanı ifade etmeyi öğreneceğiz. Şimdiki zaman ile şu anda devam etmekte olan eylemleri anlatırız. Bu konuya İngilizce’de “Present Continuous Tense” denir.

    I am sitting in the classroom now. The teacher is writing a story on the board. A student is drawing a picture. One of my friends is erasing his notebook. Ali is solving the exercises in his book.

    Daha önce “am, is, are” kelimelerini görmüştük. Şimdi verdiğimiz örneklerde bu sözcüklerden sonra sonuna “-ing” eklenmiş fiiller geldiğini görüyoruz. Anlamlarını kavramaya çalışalım.

    Two girls are playing on the seesaw.

    A baby is playing with a ball.

    Sammy and Zoe are riding their bicycles.

    My brother is sliding.

    My sister is running. She is very tired.

    Burada verdiğimiz örneklerin hepsinde şu anda devam eden aktiviteler anlatılıyor. Türkçe’de buna “şimdiki zaman” diyoruz.

    It is 9 o’clock.

    I am writing a letter.

    My mother is cooking.

    My father is watching TV.

    My grandmother is reading the newspaper.

    My grandfather is talking to my aunt.

    What are you doing?

    “am, is, are” sözcüklerine yardımcı fiil denir. Soru sormak için cümlede “am, is, are” dan hangisi kullanılmışsa, onu başa alırız.

    Are you listening to music?

    Are you drawing a picture?

    Are they talking or playing a game?

    Is he running?

    Olumsuz yapmak için de, daha önce de yaptığımız gibi “am, is, are” yerine “am not, isn’t, aren’t” kullanırız.

    -Is John coming out to play?

    -No, he isn’t coming out today. He is studying.

    -Is he studying for an exam?

    -Yes he is.

    -Are you playing football or basketball?

    -We aren’t playing football or basketball, we are playing volleyball.

    John and Jack aren’t playing with other kids. They are sitting on the bench.

    I don’t watch horse races because they are boring.

    The young lady near the camera is the interviewer. She talks to the guests.

    I’m at a golf tournament now. I can see the player. The player is standing on the field and looking at the hole. There are photographers on the field. They are taking photographs of the audience. Other players are waiting for their turns.

    Meg can’t decide what to do about the picnic. She is worried.

    invite the guests

    plan the picnic

    arrange transportation

    buy plastic plates and forks

    do the decorations

    decide the rules

    If you put a glass of water in the refrigerator, it will freeze.

    If you heat ice, it melts.

    If you heat water too much, it boils.

    Burada kullandığımız “if” sözcüğü, “eğer” manasına gelir. İngilizce konuşurken veya yazarken, diğer bağlaçlar gibi, İki cümleyi birbirine “if” kelimeciği ile bağlayabiliriz. Böylece, “if” ile başladığımız cümlecik, diğer cümleciğin (ana cümleciğin) koşulu haline gelmiş olur.

    If you feel hot, turn on the air condition.

    “If you feel hot” koşul cümlesi,

    “turn on the air condition” koşula bağlı olan ana cümlecik.

    “If” sözcüğüyle başlayan cümleciğe “if clause” denir. If sözcüğünün kullanımını işleyen bu gramer konusuna adına genel olarak “if clauses” deriz.

    Kısacası, if bir ihtimal söylenir ve bu ihtimal diğer cümleciğin koşulu olur.

    If cümleciği de, diğer cümlecik de başa alınabilir.

    If you want to be healthy don’t eat so much sweets.

    You must have a ball if you want to play volleyball.

    Bring your bicycle if you come to the picnic.

    You can meet my teammates if you come to the match.

    If you don’t want to get fat, do sports.

    I don’t like shopping very much because it is tiring. I get tired in supermarkets and malls.

    There is a woman and a man in a uniform in the picture. The man is writing something.

    İngilizce’de bazı nesneler “sayılabilir”, bazıları da “sayılamaz” olarak gruplanmıştır. Sayılabilen nesneler çoğul yapılabilir, miktarları sayılar ile belirtilebilir. Sayılamayan nesnelerin miktarını ise daha farklı yöntemler ile belirtiriz.

    Sayamadığımız şeylerin miktarını belirtmek için paketlerinden veya ağırlıklarından yararlanabiliriz.

    a bag of sugar

    a box of chocolate

    two packets of butter

    three liters of orange juice

    Belgesiz miktar belirteçleri, yani kesin olarak miktarı belirtmeyen “az, çok” gibi ifadelerden de yararlanabiliriz. Belgesiz miktar belirteçleri, sayılabilen nesneler için de kullanılır. Şimdi bunları kullanmayı öğrenelim. Bunlar çokluk bildirdiği için, sayılabilen nesneler ile bu ifadeleri kullanacaksak, “-s” eki eklenerek ismi çoğul yapmalıyız..

    “a few”, “a little” sözcükleri “az” manasına gelir. “few” sayılabilir isimler için kullanılır, “little” da sayılamaz isimler için kullanılır.

    “fewer” ve “less” kelimeleri ise “daha az” manasına gelirler. Niteleyeceğimiz ismin sayılabilir veya sayılamaz olmasına dikkat edelim.

    a few apples

    a few eggs

    a little milk

    a little butter

    “many”, “much” sözcükleri “çok” manasına gelir. “many” sayılabilir isimler için kullanılır, “much” da sayılamaz isimler için kullanılır.

    “more ” kelimesi ise “daha çok” manasına gelirler. Hem sayılabilir, hem de sayılamaz isimler için kullanılır.

    many tomatoes

    much cheese

    Hem sayılabilen, hem de sayılamayan şeyler için “some” veya “a lot of” kullanabiliriz.

    Some apples

    some sugar

    a lot of cars

    a lot of water

    Ayrıca olumsuz cümlelerde ve soru cümlelerinde “hiç” anlamında, “any” kelimesini de kullanırız.

    Sayılabilen ve çoğul yapılabilen şeylerin miktarını soracağımız zaman “how many” sorusunu kullanırız.

    Sayılamayan ve çoğul yapılamayan şeylerin miktarını soracağımız zaman “how much” sorusunu kullanmalıyız.

    how many eggs

    how much milk

    Nancy has got some flour and some sugar. She has got many eggs and a little cream too. She is making cakes for the picnic. She has got a lot of bananas and kiwis. She is decorating the cakes with them.

    -What do you need to ride bicycle?

    -You need a bike a helmet and other safety equipment to ride a bike.

    -What must you have if you want to paint your room?

    -You must have some paint and a brush if you want to paint your room.

    You can play games on a picnic. You can make barbecue on a picnic. You can chat with your friends if you go on a picnic. Kids can climb trees on a picnic.

    Unit 3 - Lesson 2 - Imaginations and Predictions

    The people in the pictures are talking. They look surprised.

    İngilizce dilbilgisinde en sık kullanılan bir diğer gelecek zaman ifadesi de “will” kelimesiyledir. Cümlelerde özneden hemen sonra “will” sözcüğünü kullanırsak, cümleye gelecek zaman manası katmış oluruz. “Will” den hemen sonra yüklem gelir. Olumsuz cümleleri “will not” ile, veya kısaca “won’t” ile kurarız.

    Ayrıca “will” kısaltılarak “‘ll” şeklinde de kullanılabilir.

    I will help you with your homework.

    He’ll call you later.

    Soru cümlesi kurmak için, will başa alınır.

    -Will Jane cook the meal?

    -No, Jane won’t cook the meal because she is very tired.

    -What will Tom do?

    -Tom will bring Jane some water and he will cook the meal.

    -Will Roger mend the washing machine?

    -No, he won’t mend the washing machine.

    -What will he do?

    -He will call the repairman tomorrow.

    -Will Phil go to work by car?

    -No he won’t because there is heavy snow and it is dangerous.

    -What will he do?

    -He will go to work by underground.

    -The telephone is ringing Jim, can you answer it?

    -I’m afraid I can’t answer it now!

    -I’ll answer the telephone then.

    -I am making your favourite cake Ahmet, but there isn’t any sugar left.

    -I’ll buy some sugar for you, mum.

    -Thank you very much, Ahmet. You are very sweet.

    -How much is the bill Ali?

    -It is $25

    -I’ll pay it then!

    -No, I want to pay it this time.

    -OK, I won’t pay it then.

    I try to listen the weather forecast every day. Sometimes, I can’t watch it if I’m in a hurry.

    “It will be a very sunny day for İstanbul today, there won’t be any clouds in the sky. Bursa will be a bit cloudy today and tomorrow. Eskişehir will be cloudy too. Ankara will be very hot for two days. İzmir will be very windy. Diyarbakır will be rainy, Şanlıurfa will be rainy too. Rize will be foggy today. There will be snow in Erzurum today. Van will also be snowy today.

    I think there will be more snow in fifty years because global warming makes summers too hot and makes winters too cold. I think it’ll be freezing cold in winters in a hundred year’s time. I think there won’t be more people in the world in twenty years because there will be many big wars. I think there will be enough clean water for everyone in hundred years because of high technology.

    I think there will be holiday resorts in other planets soon. People are very interested in going to space. It will be very exciting and very popular.

    İngilizce’de iki farklı kullanımdan bahsedeceğiz. Birincisi ve en çok kullandığımız yöntem, Türkçe’deki gibi isimlerden ve isim öbeklerinden önce sıfatın gelmesidir. Diğer bir yöntemle ise, isim cümlelerinde (yüklemi fiil olmayan cümlelerinde) sıfatları “am, is, are” gibi yardımcı fiillerden sonra kullanarak, özneyi nitelemektir.

    red apple

    big tree

    big apple tree

    The apple is red.

    The tree is big.

    The apple tree is big.

    In the future, there World Tourism Organisation will build a huge holiday resort on the moon. They will build the hotels using the minerals and ores of the moon. The hotels will be interesting. They will look like capsules. Visitors will see the Earth from the windows. There will be difficulties too. There won’t be a lot of water on the moon. And there won’t be fresh fruits an vegetables on the moon.

    “As” kelimesini, because ile aynı manada kullanabiliriz. Böylece iki cümleciği sebep sonuç ilişkisi ile bağlamış oluruz.

    There will be no dirt as there won’t be an atmosphere.

    They will throw dirty towels away as there won’t be much water.

    There won’t be fresh food as the Earth is far from the moon.

    There will be footprint pollution as there is no rain or wind.

    Holidays in the future will be very interesting. There will be many good resorts in the future. There will be a lot of activities in the future. Those activities will be very interesting. Traveling will be easier in the future as journeys will be faster and more comfortable. There won’t be a good natural scenery in the future as there won’t be many trees and forests.

    I think people will play basketball with very high baskets. I think people will play jumping games most. You can’t hear anything on the moon as there is no atmosphere. People will communicate using radios in the games. People will play with very heavy balls and toys.

    -Will I get a good mark for English this year?

    -Yes, you will get a very good grade this year because you will study on “ingilizce.name” It is a very good site.

    -Will I learn English very well this year?

    -Yes, of course, “ingilizce.name” will help you a lot.

    -Will I be rich in the future?

    -You will be very rich. You will find very good jobs because your English will be very good.

    -Will I marry soon?

    -No, you will marry when you are twenty-five years old.

    -Will my wife be a beautiful girl?

    -Yes she will be a very very beautiful girl?

    -Will I have many children?

    -You will have only three children.

    -How many of them will be boys?

    -None of them will be boys, you will have three daughters.

    -Oh, will they be naughty?

    -No, they will be very good and kind kids.

    -Will I travel to many contries?

    -You will go to a different country every year.

    -Will you ask for a lot of money?

    -Yes… I mean no, I will only ask for twenty liras.

    -Here you are.

    -Thank you. And you will often come back and ask abour your future again.

    My father doesn’t travel a lot because he is retired. He sometimes travels in holidays.

    “If” kelimesi ile koşul bildirdiğimizi söylemiştik. Şimdi de biraz daha farklı bir kullanımı göreceğiz.

    If Martin calls two hours later, his daughter will be at school.

    Burada birbirine “if” sözcüğü ile bağlı iki cümlecik var. “if” sözcüğünün kullanıldığı cümlecik, bir koşul, bir ihtimal bildiriyor. Bu koşul gerçekleşirse, diğer cümlecikteki olay da gerçekleşecek. Bu nedenle de, koşulu geniş zamanla, diğer cümleciği ise gelecek zaman ile kurarız.

    If Tina is out, Martin will a message on the answering machine.

    Martin will ve at the hotel at 5 pm if the plane arrives on time.

    If you go to Paris, you will see the Eiffel Tower.

    If you play under the rain, you will be sick.

    If you don’t study hard, you will fail the test.

    If clause için detaylı konu anlatımı buradadır.

    Working nine hours a day in that factory is a tiring job.

    We will be tired after this hard work.

    This book is very surprising. You will be surprised.

    Running is tiring. You will be tired.

    School is boring for the students. Students will be bored.

    I am watching a very interesting movie. I am interested.

    I think prices are important for me for a holiday. Weather is important too because I won’t enjoy my holiday in bad weather. Accomodation is not important for me in a holiday.

    I prefer Hotel Miranda because it is cheaper. It is further to the beach but it is nearer to the city. I think we can enjoy Hotel Miranda because it has a pool too.

    Hotel May Day has more swimming pools than Hotel Miranda. There are more restaurants and more discos in Hotel May Day. Hotel Miranda is cheaper than Hotel May Day. Hotel May Day is more expensive than Hotel Miranda. Hotel May Day has two orchestras and a tennis court but Hotel Miranda doesn’t have these. Hotel Miranda is further to the beach but closer to the city than Hotel May Day.

    -What will you do if you get lost in Spain?

    -I’ll ask somebody for directions.

    -What will happen if you don’t understand the language?

    -I will ask other people. I will show my hotel to them on the map.

    -What will you do if you lose your passport in Spain?

    -I will go to the police and the Turkish Consulate.

    I will join the army after I graduate from school. If I join the army in the summer, I will come back next year. Then, I will look for a good job, and if I find a good job, I will work there for a long time. Then, I will start my own business. If I get a lot of costumers and make a lot of money, I will buy a house and a car.

    If we pollute the environmenti the fertile lands will become polluted. If fertile lands become polluted, plants will die. If plants die, the land will turn into desert. If land turns into desert, there won’t be any food.

    Unit 3 - Lesson 3 - Arrangements

    I have a diary. I write in my diary every day. I write about my day and my thoughts in my diary.

    Gelecek ile ilgili plan ve kesin niyetlerimizi future tense (gelecek zaman) yerine, present continuous tense (şimdiki zaman) ile de ifade edebiliriz.

    Sally’s grandmother is coming at two o’clock in the afternoon on Friday the twelfth of May.

    Sally is going on a picnic with her family at three o’clock in the afternoon on Saturday the thirteenth of May.

    The weather is beautiful today but Sally can’t play tennis because her grandmother is coming at two o’clock on Friday. She’s taking a swimming course at ten o’clock in the morning on Wednesday the seventeenth of May. She is playing table tennis with John at four o’clock in the afternoon on Monday. She is meeting David on Tuesday. She is going to the pop concert at eight pm.

    -What about doing project work together Sunday evening Sally?

    -I’m sorry, I am going to the pop concert Sunday evening. What about Saturday?

    -I am not available on Saturday evening, but we can do the project work on Saturday afternoon.

    -I’m sorry, I am going on a picnic that day. How about Monday evening?

    -I’m free on Monday. We will do the project on Monday then. Okay, thank you.

    I am meeting my friends on Saturay at 6 pm. On Sunday, I am going to go to the museum with my father in the morning and we’re going to go to a movie after that. I am free Sunday evening. I’m visiting my friend on Monday at two o’clock. He is in the hospital. After that, I am going to my aunt’s house. On Tuesday, I am taking my brother to the zoo in the afternoon.

    I sometimes get invitations for weddings and ceremonies. I sometimes get invitations for parties too.

    I get a ticket when I’m going to a game or an event.

    I have got a notice board in my room. I leave notes on that board.

    I am playing football with my friends on Wednesday from 5 pm to 6:30. Later, we are going to spend the evening together with my friends. I am studying on Thursday because I am having an important exam on Friday. After the exam, I’m going to the play table tennis with my brother at 4 o’clock. I am meeting my cousins that evening at 9 pm.

    When I call a friend, I say “hi” at first

    Sizlere gelecek zaman ile ilgili farklı kullanımlar gösterdik. Bunlar; “be going to”, “will” ve “be + v-ing” şeklindeydi.

    “will”ile konuşma anında verilen kararlar, “be going to” ve “be + v-ing” ile ise önceden planlanmış eylemler anlatılır. Bunların birbirlerinden farklı kullanımlarını günlük ingilizce konuşmalarda, siz de pratik yaparak daha iyi kavrayacaksınız.

    “Ne sıklıkla”diye sormak için “how often” kalıbını kullanırız.

    -How often do you visit your grand father?

    -I visit him once a week.

    I go to films once or twice a week but I never go to ballets. I seldom go to dance performances.

    Daha önce “comperative” ile iki şey içinden üstün olanı göstermeyi öğrenmiştik. Şimdi ise bir grup içindeki “en üstün” olanı göstermeyi öğreneceğiz. Bunun için kullandığımız yönteme “superlative” denir. İkiden fazla şeyi karşılaştırıyorsak, içlerinden birini “en üstün” olarak seçebiliriz.

    İzmir is crowded. Ankara is crowded too. İstanbul is more crowded than İzmir and Ankara.

    İstanbul is the most crowded of all.

    özne

    yüklem

    the

    superlative hali

    isim

    en üstün olduğu grup

    İstanbul is the most crowded city in Türkiye.

    Hülya is the most successful student of my class.

    Cem Yılmaz tells the funniest jokes of all.

    There are a lot of houses in this street. This house is the biggest house in this street.

    Genellikle, comperative yapmak için sıfata “-er” eklenir, superlative yapmak için de “-est” eklenir. Uzun kelimelere ise, ek koymak yerine comperative yapmak için için önlerine “more”, superlative yapmak için de “most” eklenir.

    Şimdi en sık kullanılan sıfatların comperative ve superlative hallerini tablomuzu önceki ünitede vermiştik.

    Konunun detaylı anlatımı, sitemizdeki dilbilgisi konuları içerisinde mevcuttur. Buradan ulaşabilirsiniz.

    Movies are the most interesting of them for me because movies are exciting. Modern dances are exciting too but ballets are not very exciting. I think modern dances are the most artistic because they are new and modern. Ballet is not very modern. I think the most popular is movies. I think the most interesting is movies too. Ballet is the most artistic of them all.

    -What about going to opera tonight? The Phantom of the Opera is at 8 o’clock.

    -I don’t like operas very much, is there anything interesting?

    -There is the King Lear performance tonight and an Indian Folk Dance tomorrow.

    -I think the most interesting of these three is the Indian Folk Dance show but I am not free tomorrow night. I prefer King Lear performance to the opera. What about you?

    -Hmm. I think the Phantom of the Opera is very artistic and King Lear performance is very interesting.

    -Let’s go to the performance then.

    -Good idea.

    The largest desert in the world is Sahara. Everest is the highest mountain in Europe. I think the deepest lake is Lake Baikal. The largest animals in the world are whales.

    I want to live in a flat. I don’t prefer a cottage or a bungalow to a flat. Flats are in the city. I prefer living in the city.

    Flower Cottage is the oldest and Pond Cottage is the newest. Rose Cottage is larger than Pond and Flower Cottages. Rose Cottage is the largest of them. Flower Cottage is smaller than Pond Cottage and Rose Cottage. It is the smallest.

    I prefer the Pond Cottage because it is the newest.

    I never send postcards to my friends but I send e-mails to them. I send e-mails to thank my friends when they help me.

    Şimdi sıfat ve zarflardan bahsedeceğiz. Sıfatlara önceki ünitelerde değinmiştik.

    Türkçe’den de bildiğimiz gibi, isimleri niteleyen, manalarını hafifçe değiştiren sözcüklere “sıfat” deriz. Sıfatlar, genellikle isimlerden önce gelirler.

    red apple

    blue eyes

    long road

    (be, go, look, taste, get) gibi bazı durum ifade eden fiillerin yüklem olarak kullanıldıkları cümlelerde, bu fiillerden sonra gelebilirler. Bu şekilde özneyi nitelemiş olurlar.

    I feel good.

    That pie looks delicious.

    That car looks expensive.

    Bazı sözcüklerin sonuna “-ed” veya “-ing” ekleri getirerek sıfatlaştırabiliriz.

    I just ran 5 kilometers, I am tired.

    Running 5 kilometers is tiring.

    He is surprised to see me.

    The movie is very interesting.

    Zarflar ise, fiilleri niteleyen kelimelerdir.

    They run quickly

    He drives badly.

    Zarflar, genellikle sıfatlardan türetilirler.

    Sıfatları zarf olarak kullanmak için önce zarfa dönüştürmemiz gerekiyor. Bunu da genellikle kelimenin sonuna “-ly” eki getirerek yapıyoruz.

    Çoğu sıfatın sonuna “-ly” takısını ekleriz.

    quick

    soft

    quiet

    shortly

    bad

    careless

    quickly

    softly

    quietly

    shortly

    badly

    carelessly

    Ses uyumundan dolayı biraz farklı kullanımlar görülebilir.

    easy

    happy

    easily

    happily

    simple

    incredible

    simply

    incredibly

    Bazı kelimeler hem sıfat hem zarf olarak kullanılabilir.

    fast

    hard

    early

    late

    fast

    hard

    early

    late

    Bazı sıfatlar da tamamen düzensiz olarak zarflaştırılır.

    wood

    well

    He is a good teacher. He teaches well.

    You are a quick runner. You run quickly.

    She is a careless driver. She drives carelessly.

    It is an easy question. I can answered it easily.

    If you don’t walk slowly, we will be late for school.

    If you don’t speak slowly, nobody will understand you.

    Can you hear me well?

    You are so slow. Hurry up!

    The birds are singing happily.

    It’s good to see you.

    Unit 4 - Lesson 1 - Holiday Places

    I love the seaside because I love swimming. I love Antalya and İzmir.

    I prefer a hotel by the sea because it is more exciting. I like forests too but I like beaches more than forests.

    İngilizce konuşma dilinde İzin istemenin ve vermenin en nazik yolu, “may” sözcüğüyledir.

    -May I come in?

    -Of course, please come in.

    -May I use your phone?

    -Sure, the phone is on the table.

    “Could” sözcüğü de, izin istemek, nazik rica da bulunmak için kullanılabilir.

    Could I open the window?

    Could you give me directions to the library?

    Ayrıca “could” sözcüğü öneride bulunmak için de kullanılabilir.

    Let’s go to the park.

    We could go to the park.

    Nazikçe bir şey istemek, veya birisine nazikçe bir şey teklif etmek için “would” kelimelesini kullanabiliriz. Would, “‘d”olarak kısaltılabilir.

    Would you pass me the salt?

    Would you help me with this suitcases?

    Would you come with me to the game?

    Would kelimesinin en sık karşılaştığımız kullanımı, “would like” kalıbıyladır. “would like” mana olarak “want” fiili ile aynıdır.

    Would you like some chocalate?

    I would like some tea.

    I would like to make a reservation.

    -Hello, welcome to our travel agency, How can I help you?

    -Hello, I would like to go on a holiday to Antalya on the tenth of May.

    -Okay, let’s have a look. Hmm there are many hotels in Antalya but there are no available rooms that day. What about the next week? Is seventeenth of May okay for you?

    -Yes, I think it is okay. Could you look for a four star hotel near the beach?

    -Of course. The Sunshine Hotel is a very good hotel and it has free rooms. Here is a picture of the hotel.

    -It looks very good. I’d like to make a reservation for this hotel on the seventeenth of May.

    -Allright, may I have your name, please?

    -My name is Cem Yılmaz.

    -Allright Mr. Yılmaz. Please sign here. Would you like to book your flight if you are going to go by plane?

    -No, I think I’ll go by car. Thank you.

    -Have a nice holiday Mr. Yılmaz.

    Would you like to go to Kuşadası this summer?

    Could you tell me your address Mr. Joyner?

    Could we stay in a five star hotel, Frank?

    Would you check your mailbox Mr. Joyner?

    May I ask you about your arrival date?

    I sometimes leave short notes for my family when I go out.

    Jason’s note is for Mary. Jason goes to the museum without telling Mary because she is sleeping. He leaves a note instead of waking her.

    First they must turn right into Atatürk Street. They must walk straight for a bit, then turn right at the park. They must walk straight and the cafe will be on their left.

    -I’m at the hospital and I want to go to the shopping centre. Could you give me directions?

    -Sure. Go out of the hospital’s front door, then turn right into Atatürk Street. Walk straight for a bit, then turn left. The shopping centre will be on your right.

    -I would like to go to the park after shopping. Could you give me directions to the park too?

    -Of course, after shopping, go out of the shopping center and turn left. Next, turn right at the corner. It’s Atatürk Street. Walk straight and finally turn right into the first street. The park will be on your right.

    -Thanks!

    -No problem.

    Bu ünitede, geçmiş zamandan bahsediliyor.

    Geçmiş zamanı anlatmak için, isim cümlelerinde “was” ve “were” yardımcı fiillerini kullanırız.

    Kullanımları aynı “am, is, are” gibidir. “am, is, are” ile geniş zamanı ifade ediyorduk.

    “was” tekil şahıslar için, yani “am, is” yerine;

    “were” de çoğul şahıslar için, yani “are” yerine kullanılır.

    I

    am

    a student.

    I

    was

    a student last year.

    He

    She

    It

    is

    a doctor in this hospital.

    He

    She

    It

    was

    a doctor in this hospital two months ago.

    We

    You

    They

    are

    at home.

    We

    You

    They

    were

    at home last night.

    Soru cümlelerinde yardımcı fiili başa alınır.

    Was it rainy yesterday?

    Were you at the office yesterday?

    Who was that man?

    Was your car a red Ford?

    Bu tense ile en sık kullanılan zaman belirteçleri; “yesterday”, “last (week, month)”, “(two days, an hour, three monts) ago”

    yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, last month, last week, 2 years ago, six months ago

    Olumsuz cümleler de önceki konularda gördüğümüz şekilde yapılıyor. “Was” yerine “wasn’t”; “were” yerine de “weren’t” kullanırız.

    It wasn’t snowy last week.

    She wasn’t at the party last Saturday.

    Why weren’t you at school yesterday?

    Konuyu hızlıca anlattık; daha detaylı anlatımı dilbilgisi bölümünde burada bulabilirsiniz.

    The cushions were on the armchair before the theft. There were two rugs before the theft. The DVD player was below the TV. The laptop was on the table before the theft, not yesterday.

    The flowerpot was next to the sofa but now it is near the table.

    Unit 4 - Lesson 2 - Holiday Places and Past Times

    I like going to exciting places on my holidays.

    Fiil cümlelerinde geçmiş zamanı (simple past tense) ifade etmek için ise, yüklemi past hale çevirmek gerekir. Past hali v2 olarak ifade ediyoruz. Çoğu fiil, sonuna “-ed” takısı eklenerek past hale çevrilebilir. Bunlara “düzenli fiiller” yani “regular verbs” deriz.

    I stayed at home yesterday afternoon.

    The race started at 3 pm.

    It finished at 4:30.

    Her fiilin sonuna “-ed” ekleyemiyoruz, bazı fiillerin past formları “irregular” yani düzensizdir. Tablomuzda en sık kullanılan fiillerin past formlarını listeledik.

    v1

    v2

    v1

    v2

    come

    build

    cut

    fall

    go

    see

    leave

    write

    sell

    sleep

    take

    understand

    win

    wear

    say

    teach

    read

    came

    built

    cut

    fell

    went

    saw

    left

    wrote

    sold

    slept

    took

    understood

    won

    wore

    said

    taught

    read

    find

    catch

    do

    drive

    have

    make

    meet

    run

    sit

    speak

    tell

    buy

    stand

    eat

    give

    hear

    know

    think

    found

    caught

    did

    drove

    had

    made

    met

    ran

    sat

    spoke

    told

    bought

    stood

    ate

    gave

    heard

    knew

    thought

    My friend sold his car to me.

    I bought my friend’s car.

    John left the house at 6 am this morning.

    We drove to there with my father.

    Kevin and Amy decided to go for a holiday. The weather was very cold and rainy. A strange looking woman opened the door and there was a dirty dog under her arm.

    Kevin and Amy introduced themselves and the lady invited them inside. The house looked old. There were many different noises coming from the house because the weather was windy. The lady showed Kevin and Amy thir rooms. It was a large room. There was a bed and a wardrobe in the room. There were chairs in the room but there wasn’t a table. Kevin and Amy were very tired and they went to bed. First, they couldn’t sleep because there was too much noise. Finally they fell asleep after an hour.

    I am not afraid of empty buildings but I don’t like going in them and discovering them because they are somebody’s house. It is not appropirate to go into somebody’s house without asking them.

    In my story, there was a lot of noise in the house but in this story, there is a bad smell.

    In this story, the lady showed them upstairs but in my story, she showed them their room.

    In my story, they went to bed and slept but in this story they had a party.

    This story tells about a suprrise but there was no surprise in my story.

    My story tells about the room but this story doesn’t.

    Olumsuz hal ve soru hali için, “do” yardımcı fiilini past hali ile “did” olarak kullanacağız. Olumsuz cümleler için “did not” yani kısaca “didn’t” kullanırız. “did, didn’t” kullandıktan sonra yüklemin past halde değil, yalın halde kullanılması gerektiğini unutmayalım. Soru cümlelerinde de, tahmin edebileceğiniz gibi “did” sözcüğü öznenin önüne alınır.

    I didn’t see him last week.

    The man caused an accident because he didn’t stop at the red light.

    Did you talk to Ahmet about his homework.

    Didn’t you do your homework yesterday?

    Why didn’t you do it?

    What did you see in the room when you opened the door?

    Simple past tense konu anlatımı için tıklayın.

    “Could”, kelimesi “can” kelimesinin past hali gibidir. Yani geçmişteki becerilerimizi anlatırız.

    He could talk when he was two years old.

    I could run very fast two years ago.

    I could talk when I was five years old.

    I could walk when I was five years old.

    I could sing when I was five years old.

    I could run when I was five years old.

    I couldn’t ride a bicycle when I was five years old.

    I couldn’t play basketball when I was five years old.

    I couldn’t speak English when I was five years old.

    I couldn’t use a computer when I was five years old.

    -Could you play basketball when you were five years old Mustafa?

    -No, I couldn’t play basketball. But I could play hide and seek when I was five years old.

    -What about you, Selim. Could you play basketball when you were five years old?

    -No, I couldn’t. But I could use a computer when I was five years old. Could you do that?

    -Yes, I could use a computer when I was five years old too.

    -Could you lift heavy things when you were five years old?

    -I could lift some heavy things. I was very strong.

    -Could your sister lift heavy things when she was five years old?

    -No she couldn’t.

    “Used to” ile, geçmişte sık yapılan, ama artık yapılmayan eylemler (bunlara geçmiş alışkanlıklar da diyebiliriz) anlatılır. İngilizce olarak geçmiş zamana dair anılarımızı yazarken veya bir arkadaşımıza geçmişte yaptığımız şeylerden bahsederken bu yapıyı kullanabiliriz. Used to kullandığımızda, eylemin bugün devam etmediği anlaşılır.

    özne + used to + fiil + alışkanlık

    I used to play football with my friends everyday.

    We used to have picnics on weekends.

    I used to study very hard when I was in high school.

    They used to go to school by bus.

    “used to” ifadesini soru haline veya negatif hale getirirken, geçmiş zaman için uyguladığımız kuralları kullanırız. Cümleye “did” yardımcı fiilini ekleriz. “did” kullanıldığı zaman da, öbekteki fiil “use”olarak yalın halde kullanılmalıdır.

    Did you use to ride a bicycle when you were a child?

    We didn’t use to go to the same school.

    Şirince is in İzmir. The people used to call that village “Çirkince” because they didn’t want to share the beauty of the village with the foreigners. The people used to cultivate fig and tobacco. Nowadays, women sell handicrafts and olive oil in the narrow streets.

    I know that place in the picture. It is Üsküdar. That mosque is Mihrimah Sultan Mosque. I like this picture very much and I am very interested in old pictures like this.

    -How did people use to communicate in the past?

    -They used to communicate by pigeons.

    -Oh! That’s very interesting. How did people use to listen to the news in the past?

    -They used to listen to the news on the radio. What about music? How did they used to listen to music?

    -I think they used to listen to music on the gramophone.

    My father’s childhood:

    My parents’s lives were very different when they were children. For example, my father used to get up very early and help my grandfather before he went to school. He used to work in the garden for two hours. Then, he used to run to the train and go to school in another town because there weren’t any schools in his town. After school, he used to take the train back to his town. He used to play with his friends in the evenings and he used to go to bed very early because he used to get up very early too.

    Unit 4 - Lesson 3 - Tourist Places and Wishes

    I don’t want to go to Britain because it is always cold and rainy in Britain. I would like to go to warm places.

    William the Conqueror built the Tower of London in eleventh century. Nowadays, the ceremonial guards act as tourist guides and provide security. They also make Ceremony of the key.

    There are a lot of wax models in the Wax Museum today.

    People rediscovered Roman Baths in nineteenth century. At these baths, over a million litres of water come up from the ground.

    -I am thinking of a tourist attraction. Can you guess it?

    -What is it like?

    -It is a very old building. It is in Eminönü.

    -What did people use to do in that building?

    -Some people used to live in this building.

    -Can you tell me who lived in that building?

    -The Ottoman Sultans and thier families lived there.

    -Is it the Topkapı Place?

    -Yes, you’re right.

    I prefer a holiday in Türkiye because there are many attractions in different cities of Türkiye. I want to visit all of them.

    Şimdi de “if clauses” konusunun farklı bir bölümünü göreceğiz.

    If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t go to a university.

    Gerçekleşme ihtimali çok zayıf olan veya hiç olmayan, gerçekleşmemiş olayları ingilizce olarak nasıl anlatırız? Esas önemli olan, olayın gerçeklememiş olması ve gerçekleşmesinin de beklenmemesidir. Koşul cümlesi mana olarak geniş zamanda olmasına rağmen, simple past tense ile kullanılır. Ana cümlecik de, zaten olmayan bir koşuldan etkilendiği için, “hayali” durumdadır; bu nedenle de “would” ile kurulur. Bu type, genellikle dilek ve temennileri ifade etmek için kullanılır.

    Kısaca şöyle diyelim: “if clause” olarak gerçeğin zıddını yazarız, ana cümlecik olarak da sanki yazığımı koşul gerçek olmuş gibi düşünerek hayalimizi yazarız.

    If I lived in France, I would know the French language very well.

    If I had a new computer, I would be very happy.

    If clause içindeki bu kullanım, “type 2” olarak adlandırılır.

    Type 2 deki en belirgin özelliklerden biri, isim cümlelerinde özne tekil de olsa, çoğul da olsa yüklem “were” olarak kullanılır.

    Simple past + would

    If he weren’t ill, he would come to the party.

    If it were sunny, we would go to the park.

    Bu type ile en sık kullanılan tabirlerden biri de “If I were you…..”, yani “senin yerinde olsaydım……” deyimidir.

    If I were you, I wouldn’t buy that shirt.

    If I were you, I would read that book.

    What would you do if you were me?

    If you had a million dollars, would you still work?

    If I weren’t a doctor, I would like to be a businessman.

    Which animal would you like to be if you weren’t human?

    If I won the lottery, I would be driving a supercar now.

    If I were having lunch at the moment, I wouldn’t be able to answer your call.

    Type 2 nin daha detaylı açıklamasını burada bulabilirsiniz.

    “Wish” kelimesi, cümleye “keşke” kelimesine benzer bir anlam katar. “wish”, sözcüğünü dilek dilemek için kullanırız. Gerçekte olmayan şeyler için “keşke” anlamında kullanırız. Kullanım olarak “if clause” ile benzerdir. Burada da aslında geniş zamanda gerçekleşen şeylerin zıddını, geçmiş zaman ile söyleyeriz. Böylece gerçekte olmayan bir şey için, “keşke olsaydı” demiş oluruz.

    I wish I had a horse.

    I wish it weren’t so windy today.

    I wish I were thin.

    I wish I were a famous singer.

    Wish kullanımını da burada, diğer benzer ifadeler konusunda işledik.

    If I were Diane, I would stay and move to another house too. I think she’s doing the right thing.

    -I am going to the Datça Holiday Village with my family for holiday next week, would you like to come with me and my family?

    -I would like to go but unfortunately, I’m going to have a guest all week. I wish I could come with you.

    -Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. I’m leaving on Sunday. I wish you could come too. If you didn’t have a guest, would you come with me then?

    -Yes, If I didn’t have a guest, I would definitely go with you. I wish I didn’t have a guest.

    -Call me, if you change your mind.

    -Have a nice holiday.

    I wish I lived in a skyscraper. If I had a lot of money, I would buy a skyscraper and live in it. I don’t like small villages because they are too far away to the city. If villages weren’t too far, I would live in a village too.

    I have a diary and I like writing my thoughts in it. I write in my diary every day.

    Ashley must study very hard in high school to reach her goal. She wants to be a university student.

    She wants to go to university because she wants to study History. She promises to study very hard. My goal is to go to a very good university after high school. I study every day to reach my goal.

    I don’t like my school very much because my school is very boring. I wish it weren’t so boring. If there were many activities to do at school, it wouldn’t be so boring. I wish I graduated from this school and started university. I think universities are very cool. If I were a university student, I would be very happy because I would meet lots of new people and make lots of new friends. I like my friends, but I wish I had more friends.

    I wish I were at home. If I wer at home, I would be watching my favourite film.

    I wish it weren’t raining. We would have a picnic if t weren’t raining.

    Unit 5 - Lesson 1 - Telephone

    Telephone is more suitable because I can call my friend and hear his/her voice on a telephone. Leaving a note is more suitable if I went to visit my grandma and she wasn’t at home.

    Bu ünitede “present perfect tense”i öğreneceğiz.

    My father has just left the house.

    We have completed the race.

    She has seen that movie before.

    Bu kullanıma “Present perfect tense” denir. Bu kullanımın Türkçe’de tam bir karşılığı yoktur. Genel olarak, geçmişte gerçekleşmiş olaylar ile bugün arasında bir çeşit ilişki kurar. Eylemin gerçekleştiği kesin zaman önemli değildir çünkü esas vurgulanan, eylemin içinde bulunduğumuz zamana etkisidir.

    Önemli notlar:

    Kullanım, “have + v3” şeklindedir.

    3. tekil şahıslar için “have” yerine “has” kullanılmalıdır.

    Have burada yardımcı fiil rolündedir.

    v3 ise, fiilin üçüncü hali demektir. Daha önce geçmiş zaman için fiilin ikinci halini kullanmıştık. Perfect tense isimli bu kullanım için de v3 kullanacağız.

    Düzenli fiillerde, ikinci ve üçüncü haller aynıdır, yani kısaca fiilin sonuna “-ed” ekleriz. Düzensiz fiillerin üçüncü hallerini ise, yine tabloda vereceğiz.

    v1

    v2

    v3

    v1

    v2

    v3

    come

    build

    cut

    fall

    go

    see

    leave

    write

    sell

    sleep

    take

    understand

    win

    wear

    say

    teach

    read

    came

    built

    cut

    fell

    went

    saw

    left

    wrote

    sold

    slept

    took

    understood

    won

    wore

    said

    taught

    read

    come

    built

    cut

    fallen

    gone

    seen

    left

    written

    sold

    slept

    taken

    understood

    won

    worn

    said

    taught

    read

    find

    catch

    do

    drive

    have

    make

    meet

    run

    sit

    speak

    tell

    buy

    stand

    eat

    give

    hear

    know

    think

    found

    caught

    did

    drove

    had

    made

    met

    ran

    sat

    spoke

    told

    bought

    stood

    ate

    gave

    heard

    knew

    thought

    found

    caught

    done

    driven

    had

    made

    met

    ran

    sat

    spoken

    told

    bought

    stood

    eaten

    gave

    heard

    known

    thought

    have “‘ve”, has de “‘s” şeklinde kısaltılabilir. Olumsuz yapmak için basitçe yardımcı fiile “not” eklenir, soru yapmak için de yardımcı fiil başa alınır. Her durumda, hem yardımcı fiil (have) hem de v3 beraberce kullanılır.

    I haven’t met John.

    Have you met him?

    Ayrıca, “just, already, yet” kelimeleri ile de ilk defa bu tense ile beraber karşılaşıyoruz.

    “just” kelimesi, yapılan eylemin “henüz, az önce” bittiğini söyler. “Just” sözcüğü, “henüz” anlamına gelir ve yardımcı fiil (have, has) den hemen sonra kullanılır.

    The plane has just arrived.

    My brother has just finished his homework.

    “already” sözcüğü, “çoktan” manasını verir. Yani belirtilen eylem, geçmişte yapılmıştır.

    I have already heard his new song. I have seen heard it in the past.

    “yet” sözcüğü ise eylemin henüz yapılmadığı manasını verir. Bu kullanımda, cümleyi olumsuz kurarız.

    She hasn’t called me yet. She might call in the future.

    “Already” ve “just” genelde pozitif cümlelerde, “yet” ise negatif cümleler ve soru cümlelerinde kullanılır. Ayrıca “already” genelde cümlenin ortasında (fiilden önce), “yet” de sonunda bulunur.

    -Hi, Steve.

    -Hi, Alice.

    -We’re going to a picnic this Saturday with a few friends, would you like to join us?

    -I think I can join you. Who is coming?

    -Sheila and Hans are coming. I am going to call George and Mary to invite them but I’ve lost their phone numbers.

    -I can give you their numbers. I’ll send you an e-mail.

    -Thank you.

    -Have you invited Joe? He would like to come too.

    -Well, I have just called him but he said he has plans for Saturday. So he isn’t coming.

    -All right, thanks for inviting me Alice. See you at the picnic.

    -Bye.

    She has hasn’t ordered the food yet.

    She has sent an e-mail to Fred and she has already arranged the music.

    She has already ordered the costume but she hasn’t made the decorations or done the cleaning.

    do research for homework

    I haven’t done research for homework.

    Buy test books

    I’ve just bought test books.

    Study the test books

    I haven’t studied the test books yet.

    Harry is worried because his daughter hasn’t come home yet.

    Mrs. Harrison is happy because she’s just won the lottery.

    Mike is confused because he hasn’t solved the problem yet.

    I am very tired because I have just finished a football game.

    The man has just dropped his wallet.

    He has just won fifty thousand dollars.

    He has just fallen from the horse.

    She has just baked a cake.

    He has just completed a marathon.

    I’ve just left a message in an answering machine.

    Hi, Sue, I’ve just received your message and I am calling you to say thanks for inviting me. See you at the party.

    “ever, never” sözcüklerinin present perfect tense ile sık sık kullanırız. “never” sözcüğü ile daha önce “sıklık bildiren ifadeler”den bahsederken karşılaşmıştık. “Never” “asla” demektir. Olumlu cümlelerde kullanılır ve cümleye mana olarak olumsuzluk katar. “Ever” sözcüğünü ise soru cümlelerinde kullanıyoruz. En çok da geçmişteki tecrübeleri “hiç yaptın mı” anlamında sormak için kullanırız.

    -Have you ever seen the movie “Godfather”?

    -Yes, I have. veya No, I haven’t. veya No, I’ve never seen it.

    -Has your father ever done a dangerous sport?

    -I don’t think so. I think he has never done a dangerous sport.

    -What about you? Have you ever done a dangerous sport?

    -Yes, I have done racing a few times.

    -Have you ever driven an unusual vehicle?

    -No, I have never driven an unusual vehicle.

    -Has any of your friends ever driven an unusual vehicle?

    -Yes, Ned has driven a truck shaped like a hot dog sandwich.

    -That’s very interesting.

    -Have you ever eaten Chinese food?

    -No I haven’t. But I have eaten sushi! Have you ever tried sushi?

    -No, I haven’t because I don’t like fish.

    My favourite actor is Marlon Brando. He played in the Godfather movie. I have watched his movie a lot of times. What about you? Have you ever watched it?

    “Since” sözcüğüyle, geçmişte bir noktadan itibaren günümüze kadar geçen vakti anlatırız. “Since” kullanmak için, kesin bir başlangıç noktası belirtilmelidir.

    I have lived in İstanbul since ’82.

    I have been in this city since May 15th.

    I haven’t talked to Mary since last week.

    “For” sözcüğünü ise bugüne kadar geçen sürenin miktarını anlatmak için kullanırız.

    He hasn’t been to school for a week.

    She has stayed in her friend’s house for 2 months.

    “Since” eylemin başlangıç tarihini, “for” ise eylemin süresini bildirir.

    I’ve been married for 2 years.

    I’ve been married since May 2007.

    This man’s name is Justin Timberlake. He is a famous artist. He was born on the thirty-first on Janurary, nineteen eighty-one. He is a singer and he made is first album in two thousand and two. He has won 5 Grammy and 1 Emmy awards and he his latest album has sold 18 million records. He has appeared in ten movies. He has not been married.

    Since Susan bought a mobile phone, she has never stopped using it.

    Susan has never stopped using her mobile phone since she bought it.

    Sine Jack faxed his CV to the companies, Jack has been getting a lot of job offers.

    Jack has been getting a lot of job offers sine he faxed his CV to the companies.

    Since the information revolution began, communications have become quicker and cheaper

    Communications have become quicker and cheaper since the information revolution began.

    Since sözcüğünden sonra eylem için bir başlangıç vakti vermeliyiz. Bunu tarih olarak yapabileceğimiz gibi, ayrı bir alt cümlecik olarak da verebiliriz. Bu şekilde kurulan alt cümlecikler genellikle simple past tense ile kurulur.

    Present Perfect Tense Türkçede tam olarak karşılığı olmayan bir tensedir. Bu nedenle bu tense ile ligili ingilizce konuşma pratikleri ve okumalar yaparsak, anlamını daha iyi kavrarız. Present Perfect Tense konu anlatım bölümümüzde tüm kullanımlar detaylı olarak incelenmiştir. İlgili sayfaya gitmek için lütfen tıklayın.

    The KU5 model can send messages with pictures and video but th3 model can only send snapshots.

    KU5 and TH3 models have cameras but KU5’s camera is better. TH3 is smaller but thicker. KU5 has wireless connection but TH3 has infrared connection to PC. TH3 has a camera but KU5 doesn’t.

    Unit 5 - Lesson 2 - Media

    We can read business ads in newspapers but we can find them on the internet too.

    İsimleri niteleyen kelimelere sıfat deriz. Adjective sıfat demektir. Fiilleri veya başka sıfatları niteleyen kelimelere de zarf deriz. Adverb sıfat demektir. Daha önce bunlardan zaten bahsetmiştik.

    I think the editor job is more stressful than the others. Reporter job is more interesting than editor job but photographer job is the most interesting for me. I think reporter job is more tiring than photographer job because reporter job is full-time but photographer job is part-time.

    Mr. Lodge has worked in my company for 6 years as an editorial manager. He has published many books and articles since he started working here. He was a very good and successful employee. He can speak many languages and his communication with other employees was very good.

    -Hello, Mr. Fish. Are you working somewhere now?

    -No I’ve just quit my old job.

    -Why did you quit your job?

    -I quit my job because the company has moved to another city. I don’t want to move.

    -Oh, I see. What were you working as?

    -I was working as a salesman. I have been in that company for 3 years.

    -Very good Mr. Fish, can you speak any foreign languages?

    -I can speak English and Turkish only.

    -Can you work full time?

    -Sure, I’ve worked full time for ten years.

    -Okay, can you work in a team environment?

    -I think I can do that….

    -Thank you for answering our questions, we’ll get back to you.

    -Have you ever read an English newspaper?

    -No I didn’t. But I read news in English on the internet.

    -Oh. How often do you read news in English on the internet?

    -I read English news once a week.

    -Have you sent a complaint letter to a newspaper before?

    -Yes, I have.

    -When did you do it?

    -I sent one later last month.

    -Have they answered you?

    -No, I haven’t received an answer yet?

    -Have you ever written poem?

    -Yes I wrote a poem for a school project last year.

    -Have you ever eaten Chinese food?

    -Yes, I have.

    -How was it?

    -It was very greasy but it was very delicious. I ate Chinese food last year. I haven’t eaten again since that day.

    I seldom read interviews in magazines. I only read intersting articles.

    -I’ve already finished the test

    -Really! That was quick.

    -I’ve just won £3000.

    -Wow! How lucky!

    I like watching cartoons and comedy programs. I don’t like watching reality shows or music shows.

    “He’s gone to the USA” Bu cümlede “Şu anda Amerika’da” manası, “Amerika’ya gitti” manasından daha vurgulu ve önemlidir.

    Çünkü eğer şu anda Amerika’da olmasaydı, cümleyi simple past tense ile kurardık.

    İngilizce çalışırken, simple past ve present perfect tenseler arasındaki bu çok önemli farka dikkat etmemiz gerekmektedir.

    -There’s a documentary on TV now. It’s about Tunisia.

    -Tunisia is in Africa, isn’t it? I’ve never been to Tunisia. What about you?

    -I have never been to Africa but my friend has gone to Tunisia. He went there a week ago.

    -Why did he go there?

    -He went there for an international meeting.

    “…..have gone to” dersek, kişinin bir yere gittiğini ve şu anda orada olduğunu söylemiş oluruz. Bu, geçmişte gerçekleşen, ve hala devam eden bir aktivitedir.

    “…..have been to” dersek ise, kişinin geçmişte bir yerde bulunduğunu, ama şimdi orada olmadığını söylemiş oluruz. Bu ise, geçmişte yaşanılan bir tecrübedir.

    Dear Cate Black,

    You can apply the complaints office. In fact, You should do that as soon as possible. The company must apologise from you firstly, then, they must fix the problem or replace your computer with a new one in two weeks. If you have any financial loss, tell them and they must compensate your losses.

    Thank you for your email. We hope your problem will be solved in a short time.

    I can let you play games after you have finished your homework.

    I will give you the magazine after I’ve finished reading it.

    Unit 5 - Lesson 3 - Computers

    The article is about computers. The article tells about things computers are used for. It also tells about people computers are used by.

    Computers are used by everyone.

    They are made of plastic and electrical components.

    They are used for entertainment.

    Bu cümlelerde bir farklılık hemen dikkat çekiyor. Hem “are” kullandık, hem de fiili past halde kullandık. Şimdi neden olduğunu öğrenelim:

    Bu ünitede “edilgenlik” konusuna giriş yapacağız. Edilgenlik (Passive) kullanımı, Türkçe’dekine çok benzerdir. Normalde, etken cümlelerde özne, eylemi gerçekleştiren kişi olur. Edilgen cümlelerde ise, bahsedilen eylemi yapan değil, eylemden etkilenen kişi özne olarak kullanılmıştır.

    Yani öznenin yüklemde belirtilen eylemi yapan değil, eylemden etkilenen olduğu cümlelere edilgen cümle denir.

    Bu konuda, edilgen cümle yapısından bahsedeceğiz. Bu yapıyı örneğimiz üzerinde gösterelim:

    “Hırsız arabayı çalar.” Bu, etken cümlemizdir.

    “Araba çalınır.” Bu cümlenin ise biraz daha farklı olduğunu görüyoruz. Cümlenin yüklemi “çalındı” kelimesi oluyor. “Araba” da, özne görevindedir.

    Mana olarak ise, özne aslında eylemi gerçekleştiren değildir. Sadece eylemden etkilenendir.

    İngilizce ‘de de kullanım yerleri ve manaları hemen hemen aynıdır. Şimdi etken cümleyi edilgene çevirmeyi öğrenelim.

    The thiefstealsthe car.

    The caris stolenby the thief.

    Yapmamız gerekenler:

    Etken cümlenin nesnesi, edilgen cümlede özne olarak kullanılır.

    Etken cümlenin öznesi, yani işi esas yapan kişi “by” sözcüğünden sonra eklenebilir. Ancak eklemek şart değildir, hatta çoğunlukla da eklenmez.

    Fiil, passive hale çevrilir. Fiillerin passive hali “be+v3” şeklindedir. “Be”, şahsa göre “am, is, are” şekillerinde kullanılabilir.

    Computers are used for playing games and sending e-mails. Computers are used for shopping too.

    Data and programs are stored in hard disc.

    All the other parts of the system are controlled by CPU.

    A fan is almost always attached to the CPU.

    RAM can be used by programs to perform necessary tasks while the computer is on.

    Bazı passive öbekleri:

    made of

    grown in

    used for

    used by

    Where is this printer made?

    What is it made of?

    Who is it used by?

    Why is it used?

    I spend fifteen minutes a day in front of TV. I only watch the news in the morning while I’m having breakfast.

    I can have a long vacation in 45 days. I can travel to many cities. I can be a professional gamer if I spend 1095 hours in front of the computer.

    My family spends 3 hours in front of TV every evening. We watch TV at dinner table. I don’t like watching TV. I prefer using my computer and going on the internet.

    Şu ana kadar gördüğümüz edilgen cümleler, hep geniş zaman ileydi. Bu nedenle hep “am, is, are” kullandık. Edilgen cümlelerde de farklı tenseler olabilir. Edilgen cümlenin tense ini, kullanılan yardımcı fiilden (be) anlarız. Mesela, geçmiş zaman için “am, is, are” yerine “was, were” kullanabiliriz.

    Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.

    Crime and Punishment was written by Dostoyevski.

    The Olympic Games were started by th Greeks.

    Turkish March was composed by Mozart.

    İstiklal Marşı was written by Mehmet Akif and composed by Zeki Üngör. Nutuk was told by Atatürk.

    Fiona’s house was burgled last night. The door was opened with a key. Her jewellery and TV set were stolen. Police was called, photos were taken. People was questioned and burglar was arrested.

    The story of a dead body.

    A dead body was found in the forest yesterday. The victim was shot in the head. An investigation was made. The bullet was matched to another bullet in another crime. Police continued the investigation and a man was arrested. He was taken to court and he was found guilty by the judge. The man was sent to prison.

    -Who was TV invented by?

    -It was invented by John Baird.

    -When was it invented?

    -It was invented in 1926.

    -When were the firt special effect techniques in cinema used?

    -They were used in 1902.

    -Where was the first telegraph sent from?

    -It was sent from Washington.

    -Where was the first telegraph sent to?

    -It was sent to Baltimore.

    There are some notices in my school’s notice board. Those notices are about safety.

    None of those signs are common in my country because in my country, notices are prepared in Turkish. Some of the shapes in these notices are similar to Turkish notices. F, d and h are common.

    No smoking!

    Military zone, do not enter!

    Children’s day is on April the twenty-third every year. We celebrate it because the Grand Turkish National Assembly was opened that day.

    Our hero, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk became a hero in Çanakkale after many victories in 1915.

    The Grand Turkish National Assembly was founded in nineteen twenty.

    Atatürk was elected as the First President of Turkish Republic in the Grand Turkish National Assembly.

    We celebrate April twenty-third with parades and ceremonies. The soldiers and students march in the streets. The children make shows in stadiums. Songs are sung, poems are read, dances are danced and plays are played.

    Unit 6 - Lesson 1 - Stories and Films

    I don’t believe in ghosts or monsters. They are imaginary.

    Bu ünitede dikkatimizi çeken farklı bir kullanım, “was, were + v-ing” şeklindeki cümle yapılarıdır. Tahmin edeceğiniz gibi, “was, were” geçmiş zamanı, fiile eklenen “-ing” eki de sürmekte olan bir eylemi çağrıştırıyor. Bu ikisinin beraber kullanıldığı tense’e “past continuous tense” deriz. Geçmişteki bir vakitte, sürmekte olan bir eylemi anlatır. Tabiki bunu anlatmak için, önce geçmişteki bir vakitten bahsetmek gerekir…

    I was watching TV at 8 o’clock yesterday evening.

    The girl was having lunch at 1 o’clock last Monday.

    Geçmişteki vakti saat ve tarih söyleyerek anlatabileceğimiz gibi, bir alt cümlecik ile de anlatabiliriz. Böyle durumlarda, ana cümlemiz ile vakit belirten alt cümleciği “when” ve “while” gibi bağlayıcılar ile bağlayabiliriz. Şimdi bunların ingilizce dilbilgisindeki kullanımlarına biraz bakalım.

    Vakit belirtilen cümle “when” ile kurulursa, diğer cümlede bahsettiğimiz eylemin tam o anda gerçekleştiğini söylemiş oluruz. Vakit ifadesi süreklilik anlamı taşımaz. Bu nedenle de simple past ile kurulur.

    She looked around when she felt that someone was watching her.

    I looked out of the window when I heard the noise.

    “While” ifadesi ise, bir süreklilik de ifade eder. Yani “while” ile kurulan, vakit belirten cümlede bir eylem sürmektedir. Diğer olay da bu esnada gerçekleşir. Süreklilik ifadesi olduğu için, “while” ile past continuous kullanırız.

    She woke up while the ghost was taking her to the window.

    I saw her while I was walking to school.

    I was sleeping when I heard a strange noise.

    I woke up when I heard a strange noise.

    A burglar broke into the house while they were sleeping.

    They heard some noises while they were sleeping.

    I’ve never been to a film set. If I had the chance, I would like to see the set of Fast and Furious because there are beautiful girls and fast cars in that set.

    -I went to the local bookshop yesterdary and I saw someone you that you love there?

    -Who did you see?

    -I saw Alev Alatlı.

    -Really? Wow! She’s my favourite writer. What was she doing there?

    -It was her book-signing day. She was signing books.

    -Did you get a signed book too?

    -Yes, I did.

    -Then what happened? Did she talk to her fans?

    -While I was leaving the shop, the shopkeeper announced that she will chat and answer fans’ questions. So I decided to stay a bit more.

    -Very interesting. What was she talking about?

    -She was talking about her life. And then, she started talking about her latest project. While she was talking about it, my phone rang. My mother was calling me while Alev Alatlı was talking. I got out of the bookstore to talk. When I got back inside, She was answering some questions.

    -What was she wearing?

    -She was wearing a black sweater. She also had glasses.

    -Were there a lot of fans?

    -There weren’t many fans at first, but more people were coming while she was talking. There were hundreds of people when she was answering the questions.

    -Wow, I wish I was there too.

    One of my friends was shopping when I was at the cinema. Janet was cleaning the house when I was at the cinema. Sarah and Kim were gardening while Amy and Daniel were washing the car.

    I’ve heard of Julia Roberts’ name but I don’t know her very well. I have watched a few films of her.

    Later, I realised that it was an earthquake. I was very scared. I ran and hid under the table while the ground was shaking. I was breathing very fast but I couldn’t speak. Then, the earthquake stopped. I was scared at first, then I decided to go out. I started walking. I saw my brother when I stepped out of the room. He asked about our parents. We went together to their rooms. They were getting out of the room when we saw them. My father quickly told us to get a few clothes and run out of the house. While we were taking our coats, my father was taking the keys and some money. In the end, we ran out of the building and into the street. When we got out to the street, we saw our neighbours and friends in the street too. Everyone was very scared and sad.

    She was dancing when she fell down.

    While the author was signing her books, the reporter took her photo.

    When the door bell rang, Jane was reading a book.

    While we were watching a film, the electricity went off.

    I saw a famous actor while I was talking to the director.

    Unit 6 - Lesson 2 - Poems and Novels

    I don’t think a person must be in love to write a poem because not all poems are about love. There are poems about good and bad things, war and peace or nature. Why would an author be in love to write such poems?

    I think the poet was sad when he wrote this. Maybe the person he loved told him “don’t waste your love” and rejected his love. That’s why, he is sad.

    I’ve met a famous poet when I was in elementary school. One of our teachers was a famous poet.

    Bir başkasının sözünü, kendi cümlelerimizi kullanarak başkasına aktarmaya “Reported speech” denir. Reported speech İngilizce gramer konuları arasında en eğlenceli konulardan biridir. Mantık olarak gayet basittir. Olayı kavramalı, ve olayı en doğru şekilde anlatmak için kendi cümlemizi düzenlemeliyiz.

    Mandy: “Iwantto goto the event”

    Mandy said that she wanted to go to the event.

    Bu konudaki öncelikle bir “aktarım fiili” kullanırız. Bizim cümlemizin yüklemi, bu fiil olacaktır. Bu iş için en sık olarak “say” sözcüğünü kullanırız. Aktarmak istediğimiz söz, geçmişte söylendiği için cümlemizi past tense ile kurarız. Bu nedenle aktarma cümleleri genellikle “özne + said + that” şeklinde başlar. “that” sözcüğünden sonra da, aktarılan söz kendi yorumumuz ile yazılır. Bazen “that” kelimesi eklenmeyebilir. Aktaracağımız söz geçmiş zamanda söylendiği için, tense’ini geçmiş zamana çeviriyoruz.

    She said thatshewantedto goto the event.

    Bu konuda katı kurallar yoktur, sadece mantığımızı kullanmalıyız. Cümleyi biz söylüyoruz, ve anlamın doğru olması için istediğimiz her türlü değişikliği yapabiliriz ve yapmalıyız.

    My mother said that I could go to the party.

    The teacher said that we should study harder.

    I said that he was very smart.

    They said that they didn’t want to go to the movie that night.

    Aktarmak istediğimiz sözün kime söylendiğini de bildirmek istiyorsak “tell” fiilini kullanır, hemen ardından da söylendiği kişiyi belirtiriz.

    My mother told me that she was shopping.

    The policeman told the students that they should be careful.

    I told my mother that I would be late tonight.

    She told me that she was going to go abroad for a week.

    The mechanic told my dad: “Your car will be ready in two days.”

    The mechanic told my dad that our car would be ready in two days.

    I haven’t read a poem of Amy Powell yet.

    I don’t like romantic novels very much. I prefer mystery novels because they are more interesting and more exciting.

    Are your novels based on real life and real people?

    Is romance very important in life? How important is it?

    Can you tell us about your childhood?

    Did you use to write when you were younger?

    Do you earn a lot of money from your novels?

    Do you read other novelists’ works? Who do you like reading?

    What are your suggestions for your young fans?

    What do you think we should do to be happy in life?

    “Reported speech” ile her cümleyi aktarabiliriz. Aktarma fiili için uygun olan istediğimiz fiili kullanabiliriz. “Ask, announce, agree, apologise, explain, decide, reply, want….” gibi fiiller, en sık kullanılanlarındandır.

    Genel yöntem, aktarılacak cümledeki tense’i “bir geri” almaktır.

    Örneğin

    simple present yerine simple past

    present continuous yerine past continuous

    can yerine could

    will yerine would

    simple past yerine past perfect

    kullanırız…

    “Past perfect” tense, “had + v3” ile yapılır. Geçmişin, daha da geçmişini anlatır. Tek başına kullanılmaz. Mesela simple past tense ile bir olayı anlattıysak, bu olayın daha öncesinden bahsetmek için bu tense’i kullanırız.

    “I saw a dead cat”

    She said that she had seen a dead cat.

    She said that she wanted to write another romantic novel because she found romantic fiction easy to write, but that her next novel wouldn’t be a romance.

    She answered he was based on one of her friends’ ex-husband.

    She said that she had been married for nearly ten years and that they were very happy together.

    The interviewer asked Elisabeth how many novels she had written so far. She told the interviewer that she had written six novels. She said she would never stop writing, not even when she was an old lady.

    -Hello Mr. Brown. We know you are a very famous writer. Would you answer a few questions?

    -Of course, you can ask anything!

    -Are your novels based on real life and real people?

    -Some of my novels are based on reality but most of them are fictional.

    -Hmm, very intersting… What about your childhood? Can you tell us about your childhood?

    -I was a very naughty boy. My father used to yell at me all the time. I had a wonderful childhood. We used to play outside with my friends all day!

    -Did you use to write when you were younger?

    -I started writing when I was 15 years old. I used to write short stories at first.

    -Do you read other novelists’ works?

    -I read a lot because reading is fun and I think I must see other people’s writing styles.

    -What are your suggestions for your young fans?

    -They should discover their skills and work hard on them. They should work on things that they love doing.

    -Thank you for your time Mr. Brown

    Cümle içinde yine mantığa uygun olunca, yer belirten veya zaman belirten öğelerde değişiklik yapılabilir.

    Quoted Speech

    Reported Speech

    this

    that

    today

    that day

    this morning (evening…)

    that morning(evening…)

    these days (months, weeks…)

    those days (months, weeks…)

    now

    then

    ago (two days ago…)

    before (two days before)

    last month (week…)

    the month before (week…) or the previous month (week…)

    next month (week…)

    the following month (week…)

    yesterday

    the day before or the previous day

    tomorrow

    the next day or the following day

    Konuya daha geniş olarak inceleyebilmeniz için bu konuyu sitemizde, bu sayfada işledik.

    Anna said that she was going to the theatre.

    The interviewer asked if Mrs. Wood had got any children.

    George told his mum that he had gone to concert the day before.

    The poet claimed that he had been a poet for twenty years.

    Susan told her father that she would watch that film with him.

    Unit 6 - Lesson 3 - Stories and Ballet

    I don’t like ballet very much. I’ve only watched ballet on TV.

    The man won his gold medal in Moscow.

    Henry said that someone agreed to come along to translate if necessary.

    There weren’t any other ballets in Thiago’s family.

    His interests are playing guitar, painting and listening to music.

    He said “Thank you, we are going to continue tomorrow.”

    Where are you from?

    I’m from Brazil. It is a beautiful country.

    I started by mistake. I went to a circus school when I was twelve. Basto saw me ate the school and he said that I looked like a dancer. So I started to dance.

    I won the silver medal in 1998. In 2001, I entered the Moscow International Competition and won the gold medal.

    Are there any other ballet dancers in your family?

    My brother is a designer and his grandfather was a musician, but there aren’t any ballet dancers.

    What are your interests outside ballet?

    We are playing the guitar, painting and listening to music. But there isn’t much time.

    Thank you for the interview. We are going to continue tomorrow.

    I prefer to go to the cinema because I find ballet boring.

    I like reading exciting stories. The name of the latest story I have read is “War in Middle East.”

    I think it is an ostrich’s egg. Their eggs are huge. They decide to keep the egg and learn about the egg by writing a letter to laboratory.

    Daha önceki ingilizce derslerimizde may modalının izin istemede kullanıldığını gördük. “May” kelimesi ile ihtimal de bildirebiliriz.

    -Where is your father?

    -He may be in the living room.

    This may be a dinosaur egg.

    He may come today, or he may come tomorrow.

    She may call me this evening.

    I think the laboratory may send them a short reply and ask them to bring the egg.

    If I were Simon or Beth, I would look on the internet and do research on huge eggs. If I were one of them, I would also offer to break the egg and see what’s in it. I wouldn’t write a letter to the laboratory, I would send an email. Also, If I found an egg like that, I would ask the laboratory for money if they wanted the egg.

    It may rain if there are black clouds.

    The baby may be hungry.

    He may be sleeping.

    The cafe may be closed.

    9. sınıfta her biri ikişer dersten oluşan 6 ünite bulunuyor. En son ünite olan 9. sınıf derslerinde öncelikle eski konuların genel tekrarlarına yer verdik. Dilbilgisi derslerimiz and/or bağlaçları, aile üyeleri, geniş zaman, sıklık zarfları, can modalının farklı anlamlardaki kullanımı, should/must, comperative and superlative adjectives, şimdiki zaman, sayılabilen/sayılamayan isimler, sıfatlar/zarflar, was/were kullanımı, since, for, yet, already kullanımı, when/while bağlaçları gibi konuları kapsıyor. Üniteler ilerledikçe, bir önceki konuların kısa kısa tekrarlarını göreceksiniz. Her konuyu mutlaka tekrarlayarak ve sürekli pratik yaparak İngilizce derslerinde her zaman başarılı olacaksınız.

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