(4) Knowledge, according to Aristotle, is of three main kinds— theoretical, practical, or productive, according as it is pursued
for its own sake, as a means to conduct, or as a means to making something that is useful or beautiful. The supreme practical science- that to which all others are subordinate and ministerial
- is politics. We, with our fuller consciousness of man's membership of communities other than the state, might be more inclined to call it, social science. Of this science, ethics is but a part, and accordingly Aristotle never speaks of "ethics" as a separate science, but
only of " the study of character" or "our discussions of character".
The complete science of "politics" falls into two parts which may for convenience be called ethics and politics. Aristotle's ethics, no doubt, are social, and his politics are ethical; he does not forget in the Ethics that the individual man is essentially a member of society, nor in the Politics that the good life of the state exists only in the good lives of its citizens. Still, he has no doubt that there is a difference between the two enquiries. About the nature of the relation between them
he is not so clear.
(17) At the outset of "Ethics" he describes the good of the state as "greater and more perfect" than that of the individual, and the latter
as merely something with which we may have to put up if we cannot attain the former. His sense of the value of the individual life appears to grow as he discusses it, and at the end of the work
he speaks as if the state were merely ancillary
to the moral life of the individual, supplying the element of compulsion which is needed if man's desires are to be made subservient
to his reason
Mark the best choice
1. In this passage, Aristotle considers __________.